Buddhism and Jainism for SSC RRB NTPC

In this article we will discuss the topic of Buddhism and Jainism for SSC RRB NTPC PSC exams. At the end we will have a quiz session for self-evaluation.

Rise of Buddhism and Jainism

The primary reason behind the rise of Buddhism and Jainism was the religious upheaval in Indian states in the 6th century B.C. People became more focused on ethical and moral values rather than established socio-religious norms. People were trying to escape from complex rituals and sacrifices to adopt alternatives like Buddhism and Jainism which emphasised in true happiness instead of material prosperity.Here are some reasons of rise of Buddhism and Jainism
  • Kshatriyas reacted negatively against the ritualistic domination of Brahmanas
  • Rise of Agricultural Economy and animal husbandry. This agrarian economy made people realise the importance of animals in the society thus made them against the animal sacrifices.
  • Support of Vaishyas and other mercantile groups who appealed for better social status.
  • People became interested in more peace-centered and simple principles of Buddhism and Jainism rather than complex and expensive rituals.
  • The rigid caste system generated tensions among all the varnas in the society.

 

Buddhism

Buddha’s Doctrine

His teachings are based on three important pillars
  • Buddha- Founder of Teacher
  • Dhamma – Teachings
  • Sangha- Order of Buddhist Monks
“I teach suffering, its origin, cessation and path. That’s all I teach”: Buddha
The Four Noble Truths are the essence of the Buddha’s teachings. Here are these four principles.
Buddhism and Jainism PDF module for SSC, RRB NTPC, PSC exams 2020
The Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhism and Jainism PDF module for SSC, RRB NTPC, PSC exams 2020
Other Names of Buddha
  • Siddhartha
  • Sakyamuni
  • Tathagata
Family Tree Of Buddha
Some Facts of Life of Buddha
  • Goutam Buddha was born as Siddhartha in 563 BC on Vaishaka Poornima Day at Lumbini
  • He married Yashodhara at the age of 16
  • He left his family at the age of 29
  • He left his palace with Channa, the charioteer and his loving horse named Kanthaka
Summary of Buddha’s Life story
        Age         
      Place           
Event
Name
Symbol
0
Lumbini
Birth
Janma
Lotus and Bull
29
Lumbini
The great departure
Mahavinishkraman
Horse
35
Gaya
Enlightenment
Nirvana
Bodhi Tree
35
Sarnath
First Sermon
Dharmachakraprabartan
Wheel
80
Kushinagar
Death
Mahaparinirban
Stupa

Buddhist Council

Council
Year
Venue
Chairman
Patron
1st
483 BC
Rajgriha
Mahakasappa
Ajathsatru
2nd
383 BC
Vaisali
Sabbakami
Kalashoka
3rd
250 BC
Pataliputra
Mogaliputta
Ashoka
4th
98 AD
Kundalvan(Kashmir)
Vasumitra
Kanishka

Note:

  • Abhidharma Pitaka was added in 3rd Buddhist Council
  • Buddhism was divided into Mahayan and Hinayan in 4th Buddhist Council
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Jainism

  • Jainism was propagated in 6th century B.C by Lord Mahavira.
  • There were 24 great teachers or Tirthankaras, the last of whom was Lord Mahavira.
  • Tirthankaras are people who had attained all knowledge (Moksha) while living and preached it to the people.
  • The first Tirthankara was Rishabnatha.
  • The word ‘Jain’ is derived from jina or jaina which means the ‘Conqueror’.
  • Mahavir was also known as Jitendriya and Arihant.
  • Mahavir was born in 599 BC Kundalgram village near Vaishali
  • He was born in Jnatrika clan.
  • At the age of 30 years, he renounced his home and become an ascetic.
  • He practised austerity for 12 years and attained the highest spiritual knowledge called Kaivalya (i.e conquered misery and happiness) at the age of 42 years.
  • He delivered his first sermon at Pava.
  • A symbol was associated with every Tirthankara and Mahavira’s symbol was a lion.
  • Mahavir passed away at the age of 72 years at Pavapuri
Family Tree of Mahavir
  • Jamali was his first disciple
Jain Literature
Jain literature is classified into two major categories:
  • Agam or Canonical Literature (Agam Sutras)
  • Non‑agam Literature
Spread of Jainism
  • Mahavira ordered his followers which considered both men and women.
  • Jainism spreaded gradually into West and South India where brahmanical order was weak.
  • The great Mauryan King Chandragupta Maurya, during his last years, became a jain ascetic and promoted Jainism in Karnataka.
  • Famine in Magadha led to the spread of Jainism in South India.
  • The famine lasted for 12 years. Many Jains went to South India under the leadership of Bhadrabahu to protect themselves from the famine. Which is known as the great exodus.

 

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