Important UNESCO World Heritage Sites In India: There are 38 World Heritage Sites in India.These site are recognized as sites with cultural and natural importance by UNESCO World Heritage Convention.Let’s learn.
There are two types of cultural heritage
- Tangible Cultural Heritage: Natural or artificial site or archaeological structure,buildings,monuments etc
- Intangible Cultural Heritage: Skill,tradition,knowledge,communities etc
Tangible Cultural Heritage are further classified into three types
- Cultural World Heritage Sites
- Natural World Heritage Sites
- Cultural and Natural (Mixed) World Heritage Site
A World Heritage site is defined as a natural or artificial site or archaeological structure that is of international importance which requires special protection. It is classified under tangible cultural heritage.
These sites are officially recognized by the UN and the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).
- The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is headquartered in Paris,France.
- UNESCO was established on 4 November 1945.
- Current Director General is Audrey Azoulay. (As of July 2020)
- UNESCO is a member under the United Nations Development Group.
- The list of world heritage sites is maintained by the international World Heritage Programme under UNESCO.
- A treaty called World Heritage Convention was signed to announce world heritage site lists.
- The list is administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. The committee is composed of 21 UNESCO member states, elected by the General Assembly.
18th April of every year is celebrated as World Heritage Day to create and spread awareness about Heritage among communities around the world.
The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) declared, 18 April as the “World Heritage Day” in 1982. This declaration was approved by the General Assembly of UNESCO in 1983 to spread awareness about cultural heritages around the world and also to protect and conserve the existing cultural heritages.
- World Heritage Sites of a nation not only brings huge international prestige but also it asks a commitment and responsibility from that Nation to save and protect concerned site.
- World Heritage Sites give economy a boost in form of tourist income and promotes jobs.
- Creates public awareness about cultural and natural importance.
The list of 38 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India
Cultural World Heritage Sites in India
- Taj Mahal, Agra
- Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh
- Hampi, Karnataka
- Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra
- Ellora Caves, Maharashtra
- Bodh Gaya, Bihar
- Sun Temple, Konark, Odisha
- Red Fort Complex, Delhi
- Chola Temples, Tamil Nadu
- Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu
- Humayun’s Tomb, New Delhi
- Jantar Mantar, Jaipur, Rajasthan
- Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh
- Agra Fort, Uttar Pradesh
- Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh
- Rani Ki Vav, Patan, Gujarat
- Hill Forts of Rajasthan
- Elephanta Caves, Maharashtra
- Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University), Bihar
- Group of Monuments at Pattadakal, Karnataka
- Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)
- Qutub Minar and its Monuments, New Delhi
- Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat
- The Historic City of Ahmedabad
- Churches and Convents of Goa
- Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh
- The Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai
- Capitol Complex, Chandigarh
- The Pink City,Jaipur,Rajasthan
Natural World Heritage Sites in India
- Kaziranga Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam
- Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh
- Western Ghats
- Manas Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam
- Sundarbans National Park, West Bengal
- Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan
- Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks of Uttarakhand
- Kanchenjunga National Park, Sikkim
Cultural and Natural (Mixed) World Heritage Site in India
- Khangchendzonga National Park
A nominated site is selected as world heritage site only if it is of ‘outstanding universal value‘ and meets at least one of the ten selection criteria outlined by UNESCO.
Once a site is listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site, it must be protected from external threats and regular maintenance is needed. Sometimes it is seen that some listed World Heritage Sites gets affected by several factors like natural disasters,pollution, poaching, armed conflict or uncontrolled tourism activities. The sites are then listed in danger list, if such unfortunate activities are observed. The sites are completely removed from the list if the situation becomes worse or no further action is taken by the concerned state.
- Arabian Oryx Sanctuary, Oman
- Dresden Elbe Valley, Germany
- Bagrati Cathedral, Georgia
All the data mentioned in this article are as per data from UNESCO,July 2020, the above mentioned data are subjected to change.