Important International Organisations for SSC,UPSC: An international organization is an organization governed by international law, treaty or intergovernmental agreements between several countries. Here we will discuss the Important International Organisations for competitive exams like SSC,Railway,UPSC,state PSCs,IBPS etc.Let’s learn.

Important International Organisations for SSC,UPSC

All the data are taken from the official websites of the concerned organisations or institutions as on August 2020.The president,CEO or Director general of the organisations or institutions are subjected to change at a later time.

International Financial Institutions


World Bank Group

Formation: 1944

Structure:World Bank Group comprises five institutions 

  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is involved in disbursing loans, credits, and grants.
  • International Development Association (IDA) provides low interest or no-interest loans to underdeveloped countries.
  • The International Finance Corporation (IFC) deals with the investment, advice and asset management to international companies and country governments.
  • The Multilateral Guarantee Agency (MIGA) provides insurance to lenders and investors against political risk,war, terrorism,civil disturbance etc.
  • The International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) provides solutions to the  investment-disputes between international investors and countries.

Objectives:

  • World Bank works on reduction of poverty at global scale.
  • It promotes capital programmes in developing countries.
  • Strengthens the governments in delivering quality services with greater efficiency and transparency.
  • World bank focuses on social development, gover­nance, basic health and education, projects of international importance.

Head Quarter: Washington DC,USA

President:  David R. Malpass

Is India a Member? Yes

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Formation: 1944

Structure:

IMF board of governors are advised two ministerial committees

  • The International Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC)
  • The Development Committee

Objectives:

  • Promotes global monetary cooperation
  • Secure financial stability to member country governments.
  • Facilitate international trade.
  • Promote high employment and sustainable economic growth.
  • Monitors the economic and financial policies of the member countries.

What is Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)?

  • SDR is the IMF’s unit of account. It is not a currency.
  • The currency value of the SDR is determined by the values in U.S. Dollars based on market exchange rates of a SDR basket of concerned currencies.
  • SDR basket of currencies includes the currencies like U.S. Dollar, Japanese yen, Euro, pound sterling and the Chinese currency renminbi.
  • The currency value of SDR is on calculated daily basis.

Head Quarter: Washington DC,USA

Managing Director: Kristalina Georgieva

Is India a Member? Yes

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
undertook significant initiatives during Global Economic Crisis in 2008 to strengthen prompt surveillance to respond to a more globalized and interconnected world.
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

Formation: 2015 through ‘AIIB Articles of Agreement’

Structure:

  • Membership in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank is open to all members of the World Bank Group or the Asian Development Bank and is further divided into regional and non-regional members.
  • China is the largest shareholder in AIIB with 26.61 % voting shares which is  followed by India (7.6%), Russia (6.01%) and Germany (4.2 %).

Objectives:

  • The creation of the AIIB is primarily focused on countering dominance of WB or IMF.
  • To foster sustainable economic development and creation of wealth by improving infrastructure connectivity in Asia.
  • AIIB promotes the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) initiative of China.
  • Promotion of regional trade and investment relations in Asian continent.

Head Quarter: Beijing,China

President and Chairman of the Board of Directors: Jin Liqun

Is India a Member? Yes

Asian Development Bank

Formation: 1966

Structure: Japan is one of the largest shareholders of the bank, the president has always been Japanese.

Largest Shareholders in ADB: Japan and the United States (each with 15.6% of total shares), the People’s Republic of China (6.4%), India (6.3%), and Australia (5.8%).

Objectives:

  • ADB is focused in achieving a prosperous, inclusive, resilient,sustainable economic growth in Asian Region.
  • The ADB provides hard loans on commercial terms mainly to middle income countries in Asia.
  • The ADB provides soft loans to the poorer countries in the Asian region.
What is 'Hard Loan' and 'Soft Loan'?
A hard loan must be repaid in the currency which has political stability and reputation and a soft loan is a loan with a lower interest rate than existing market rate.

Head Quarter: Manila, Philippines.

President: Masatsugu Asakawa

India a Member? Yes

New Development Bank

Formation: New Development Bank (NDB) was established as the BRICS Development Bank in 2014

Structure: Former chairman of Infosys Limited K. V. Kamath from India, was the first elected president of the New Development Bank. He was replaced by Marcos Prado Troyjo from Brazil since 7 July 2020.

According to Articles of Agreement of the New Development Bank, the initial authorized capital of the bank is divided into Brazil,Russia,India,China,South Africa and countries enjoy 20% of shareholding and voting rights individually.

Objectives:

  • New Development Bank promotes infrastructure and sustainable development projects in member countries.
  • New Development Bank is focused in establishment of an extensive network of global partnerships with other multilateral development institutions.

Head Quarter: Shanghai, China.

Director General: Marcos Prado Troyjo

India a Member? Yes

United Nations Organisations


United Nations

Formation:24 October 1945,this day is celebrated as United Nations Day

Objectives:

United Nations has many specialized agency for different purposes to deal with. The overall organization’s objectives include

  • Maintaining international peace and security at global scale.
  • Protecting human rights and delivering humanitarian assistance.
  • Promoting economic and sustainable development.
  • Upholding international law.
  • Look into environmental issues around the globe. 

Head Quarter: New York City,USA

Secretary General: António Guterres

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) which seeks achieve global peace through international cooperation in Education, the Sciences and Culture.

Formation: 1945

Objectives:

  • Focused on quality education for all at global scale.
  • UNESCO promotes cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue.
  • UNESCO promotes inclusive knowledge within societies through information and communication and addresses emerging social and ethical challenges.
  • Global priority areas of UNESCO- “Africa” and “Gender Equality”.

Head Quarter: Paris,France

Director General: Audrey Azoulay

UNICEF

Formation: The institution was formed in 1946 as International Children’s Emergency Fund (ICEF) 

Objectives: UNICEF is governed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989.

Basic objectives are

  • Child Development and Nutrition and Child Protection
  • Inclusive education of Children
  • Polio Eradication
  • Reproductive and Child Health including combating diseases like AIDS
  • Behaviour Change Communication;

Head Quarter: New York,USA

Executive General: Henrietta Holsman Fore

UNICEF started its work in India in 1949 and presently works with Ministry of Women and Child Development.
Do You Know?
UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1965 for “promotion of brotherhood among the nations”.
United Nations Development Programme(UNDP)

It is United Nations’ global development network.

Formation: 1965

Objectives:

  • Poverty reduction at global scale.
  • Crisis prevention and recovery in case of a crisis like armed conflict or a natural disaster.
  • UNDP works with country governments to strengthen their capacity to address global environmental issues by providing innovative policy.
  • Prevention of HIV/AIDS.

Head Quarter: New York,USA

Director General: Achim Steiner

World Health Organization(WHO)

World Health Organization (WHO) is focused on public health at global scale.

Formation: April 7,1948. 7th April of every year is celebrated as World Health Day.

Objectives:

  • Addressing communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  • Works on Pollution related diseases through international health network.
  • Promotes cooperation among scientific and professional groups in health related research and innovation.
  • WHO addresses health policy of various governments.
  • Encourages public health education and awareness campaigns.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Tedros Adhanom

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Formation: 1919

Objectives:

  • Promotes the standards and fundamental principles and rights at work.
  • To create greater opportunities to secure decent employment.
  • Works to ensure the maximum coverage and effective social protection for all.
  • Working to end the menace of child labour.
  • Addresses unfair discrimination among workers.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Guy Ryder

Do You Know?
ILO was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1969.
India is a founding member of the International Labour Organization. India has been a permanent member of the ILO Governing Body since 1922.
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)

FAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations which leads international efforts to combat hunger and improve nutrition and food security at global scale.

Formation:1945

Objectives:

  • Right to Food Guidelines were adopted by FAO.
  • Provides a Comprehensive Framework for Action to combat hunger issues specially in underdeveloped countries through Food security programmes.
  •  Protection of plants by International Plant Protection Convention.
  • Promotion of Integrated pest management programme.
  • FAO is also involved in sustainable management in forestry and fisheries in its member states.

Head Quarter: Rome,Italy

Director General: Qu Dongyu

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Formation:26th April,1967, this day is celebrated as World Intellectual Property Day 

Objectives:

  • To provide a resilient global services to protect Intellectual Property across the globe and to assist and resolve disputes.
  • To develop a technical infrastructure to connect Intellectual Property systems and share knowledge around the world with authentic source of information.
  • Cooperation and capacity-building programs to make people aware about Intellectual Property for inclusive economic, social and cultural development.

What is Intellectual Property?
Intellectual Property is a tangible property which includes human intellectual works like copyrights,trademarks,patents,moral right,publicity rights etc.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Francis Gurry

Is India a member? India joined WIPO in 1975.

WIPO releases Global Innovation Index in a joint collboration with with Cornell University and INSEAD to rank countries according to their capacity,growth in innovation.

United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

Formation:1974

Objectives:

  • Promotes of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
  • Fosters tourism education and training through technical assistance projects.
  • To protect human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.

Head Quarter: Madrid, Spain

Director General: Zurab Pololikashvili

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Formation:1964

Objectives:

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is involved in formulating policies related to trade, aid, transport, finance and technology at global scale.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Mukhisa Kituyi

Is India a member? yes

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

Formation:1950

Objectives:

  • Collects and exchange meteorological and hydrological data with the whole world for proper communication and mitigate disaster.
  • Disaster risk management and combating its post effect.
  • The Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS).
  • The WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS).
  • Aviation meteorological services.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Petteri Taalas

International Environmental Institution


United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP)

Formation:1972

Objectives:

  • developing international environmental conventions.
  • promoting environmental science and information.
  • funding environmental development projects including reforestation and wetlands restoration.
  • formulating guidelines on issues like the international trade in potentially harmful chemicals, transboundary air pollution and contamination of international waterways.
  • maintaining a repository of scientific and environmental research.

Head Quarter: Nairobi,Kenya

Director General: Inger Andersen 

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC)

Formation:1992

The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty which was signed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development also known as the Earth Summit, the Rio Summit or the Rio Conference.

Objectives:

  • to stabilize the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to combat the climate change.
  • Adaptation to climate change for the safekeeping of food production.
  • Promotion of economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
  • Institutional arrangements like the Conference of the Parties (COP).
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body which functions under the United Nations.

Formation:1988 

The IPCC was established in 1988 by the cooperation of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 

Objectives:

IPCC reports to the parent organisations WMO and UNEP over the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to human-induced climate change and its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.

Head Quarter: Geneva,Switzerland

Director General: Hoesung Lee

CITES

Formation:1963 

Objectives:

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement which works through international and regional economic integration for the protection of wild animals and plants.

The CITES Secretariat is administered by UNEP

Head Quarter: Geneva,Switzerland

Director General: Ivonne Higuero

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

IUCN is an international organisation which works on protection and preservation of nature and natural resources.

Formation:1975

Objectives:

  • IUCN works for the conservation of natural resources.
  • It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects and education.

Head Quarter:  Gland, Switzerland

Director General: Dr Bruno Oberle

TRAFFIC

Formation: 1976

Objectives: It a Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network.

  • Works globally on the trade of endangered wild animals and plants aiming at biodiversity and sustainable development.
  • TRAFFIC was as a strategic alliance of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
World Wide Fund for Nature

Formation: 1961 

Objectives:

WWF is an international non-governmental organization that works in the field of wilderness preservation and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

Head Quarter: Gland, Switzerland

President and CEO: Pavan Sukhdev

Other Important International Organisation


World Economic Forum (WEF)

Formation:1971

Objectives:

  • World Economic Forum organises annual flagship meeting every year at the end of January in Davos, Switzerland.
  • WEF works on various aspects like Health,Society,Environment,Good governance at global scale.

Head Quarter: Cologny, Switzerland

Founder and Executive Chairman: Klaus Schwab

World Economic Forum releases few indexes that ranks countries on various issues.

  • The Global Gender Gap Index 
  • The Global Competitiveness Report
  • Global Social Mobility Index
G20

The G20 or the group of 20  is an informal international group of 19 countries and the European Union, with a set of comprehensive support from the organisations like International Monetary Fund,World Bank,The International Labour Organization,The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization etc

Formation: 1999 

Objectives:

  • The G20 is focused on various issues of global importance including Tax and fiscal policy,Trade,Agriculture,Employment,Energy etc.
  • G20 also involves in fighting against corruption,Women empowerment,Combating terrorism,Climate change etc

India a Member? Yes

G7

The Group of Seven (G-7) is an intergovernmental group of seven countries like France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States and Canada.

Inclusion of Russia makes the group the G8.

Formation: The formation of G7 was proposed in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) was established by the G-7 groping in Paris in 1989 aiming at curbing terrorism financing.

Objectives: G7 has basic objectives like global economic governance, international security and energy policy, gender equality,biodiversity etc

India a Member? No, India is not a member. However, India was invited at 45th G-7 summit hosted by France in 2019.India’s presence at the G7 summit also acknowledges the changing world order and India’s growing influence as a major economic power.

BRICS

BRICS is the acronym which stands for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

Formation: 2009

Objectives:

  • Promotes cooperation in mutually beneficial development among the member countries
  • To boost economic strengths.
  • To emerge as a political-diplomatic entity.

India a Member? Yes

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Formation: 1967 through ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration)

ASEAN includes 10 member states and 2 observer states.

Head Quarter: Jakarta,Indonesia

India a Member? No

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Formation: 2001

SCO includes 8 countries Kazakhstan,China,Kyrgyzstan,Russia,Tajikistan,Uzbekistan,India and Pakistan

Objectives: SCO is an intergovernmental international organisation focused on issues like 

  • Strengthening mutual trust among the member states.
  • Promoting inclusive and sustainable cooperation in the fields like politics, culture,trade, economy, research development technology.
  • Enhance ties in education, energy, transport, tourism etc.
  • SCO promotes peace and monitors security and stability in the region.

India a Member? Yes

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Formation: SAARC was established through SAARC Charter in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. SAARC comprises of eight member States.

These are Afghanistan,Bangladesh,Bhutan,India,Maldives,Nepal,Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Head Quarter: Kathmandu, Nepal.

India a Member? Yes

The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)

Formation:1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.

BIMSTEC includes 7 members such as Bangladesh,Bhutan,India,Nepal,Sri Lanka,Myanmar and Thailand

Objectives:

It is a regional multilateral organisation focused in Sovereign Equality,Territorial Integrity,Political Independence,No-interference in Internal Affairs, Peaceful Co- existence in the region.

India a Member? Yes

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Formation: 1989

Objectives:

  • To establish new markets for agricultural products countering western dominance.
  • To stimulate economic growth in Asia-Pacific region.
  • To reduce the costs of business transactions across the region.

Head Quarter: Queenstown, Singapore

India a Member? No

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Formation: 1948

Objectives: OECD is involved in stimulating economic progress and world trade.

Head Quarter: Paris, France

Director General:José Ángel Gurría

India a Member? No

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 

Formation:1949

Head Quarter: Brussels, Belgium

Secretary General: Jens Stoltenberg

India a Member? No

International Atomic Energy Agency

Formation: 1957

Objectives: International Atomic Energy Agency promotes contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.

Head Quarter: Vienna, Austria

Director General:Rafael Grossi

India a Member? Yes

Amnesty International

Formation: 1961

Objectives: It is a non-governmental body which works on human rights of Women’s, children, minorities,refugees,prisoners etc at the global scale.

Head Quarter: London,United Kindom

Director General:Kumi Naidoo

India a Member? Yes

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Formation: 1995

World Trade Organization (WTO) was established by replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was launched in 1948.

Objectives:

  • WTO works on reduction of costs of production and doing business internationally.
  • The WTO is focused on stimulating the economic growth and employment.
  • The WTO encourages good governance with transparency.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General:Roberto Azevêdo

India a Member? Yes

Confusing GK pointer
The head quarter of World Trade Organization (WTO) is at Geneva, Switzerland but the head quarter of United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) is at Madrid, Spain.

International Sports Organisation


FIFA or International Federation of Association Football

Formation: 1904

Head Quarter: Zürich, Switzerland

President:Gianni Infantino

Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)

Formation: 1954

Head Quarter: Nyon, Switzerland

President: Thomas Bach

International Cricket Council (ICC)

Formation:1909

Head Quarter: Dubai,UAE

CEO: Manu Sawhney

FIDE or International Chess Federation

Formation:1924

Head Quarter: Lausanne, Switzerland

President:Arkady Dvorkovich

International Olympic Committee

Formation:1894

Head Quarter: Lausanne, Switzerland

President:Jacques Rogge

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