Cyclones are one of the most disastrous natural calamities,causing enormous environmental and economical damage to the society. Let’s know all about cyclone disaster management.
What Is Cyclone?
Cyclones are the most intense storms on earth. A cyclone can be defined as an atmospheric disturbance where winds rotate counterclockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere around a low pressure center. The air circulation rises and cools and then creates clouds and precipitation.
Types of Cyclones
Cyclones are mainly of two types
- Tropical cyclones
- Tropical cyclones are formed between the region Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
- Tropical cyclones are of thermal origin.
- It is formed around a low-pressure centre which is associated with the convergence of wind rotating inwards direction to the low-pressure point. Thus a closed cyclonic vortex is formed. Coriolis force and the rapid inward circulation create the cyclonic vortex.
2. Extratropical/Temperate cyclones
- Also known as Mid-Latitude Cyclones.
- Extratropical cyclones are formed in winter in the mid-latitudes and move eastward with the flow of westerly winds.
- .Extratropical cyclones are generally fierce in the mid-Atlantic and New England states where they are known as nor’easters, because they are originated from the northeast.
Favourable Conditions For Cyclones
- An intense low-pressure condition where the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone forms 5 to 8 degree away from the equator.
- Sea surface temperature more than 27-degree Celsius is favorable for tropical cyclones.
- Presence of the Coriolis force.
- An adequate vapour supply through evaporation.
- Differential heating of land and sea.
Different Names of Cyclones in The World
The cyclones are called by different names in various parts of the planet.
|Typhoon||Northwest Pacific including the South China Sea|
|Hurricane||North Atlantic including the Caribbean sea|
|Tornado||West Africa and Southern USA|
|Tropical Cyclone||India oceans|
Effects of Cyclones
- Loss of life,property,infrastructure,communication system etc.
- Torrential rains causes inland flooding, landslides, soil erosion etc.
- Abnormal rise in sea level around the coastline reduces the soil fertility.
- Economic loss to the tourism industry and fishermen.
Tropical cyclones are given name to ease the communication between various centers,thus helps in better coordination and management.Name of a cyclone is decided by several countries in the region and is done under the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
For the Indian Ocean region, a nomenclature formula for cyclones was accepted in 2004 between eight countries in the region. These are Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Srilanka and Thailand. All countries suggested a set of names which are assigned in a particular sequence whenever a cyclone is developed in the Indian Ocean region.
Recently 5 more countries like United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Qatar, Iran, Saudi Arabia were added in the nomenclature panel of Indian Ocean region. These new countries will also suggest a set names.
After the Amphan,Nisarga the next names will be Gati then Nivar and nomenclature will be continued.
Cyclones in India occurs during the month of May, June, October, and November.
Cyclone management in India
The cyclones are natural phenomenon.We can’t control nature, but if we focus on preparedness,adaptation, adequate response the damage caused by cyclones can be mitigated. Indian government have taken steps and started dedicated departments, authorities and fund for the cyclone management in India.
- Indian Meteorological Department(IMD) is the nodal agency for early warning of natural calamities like cyclones and floods.
- Natural Disaster Management Authority deals the disaster management in India. Natural Disaster Management Authority has prepared a set of National Guidelines on Management of Cyclone.
- National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) was launched by the Ministry of Home Affairs to forecast and track cyclones in risk zone.
- National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is involved in rescue and relief work.
- National Disaster Response Reserve (NDRR) A contingency fund of 250 crores under NDRF is maintained for an emergency situation.
- National Disaster Management Plan was launched in 2016. It provides a comprehensive guideline to deal with prevention, mitigation, response and recovery during a disaster. Ministry of earth science is assigned for disaster management of cyclone. By this plan, India becomes the member of the countries under the Sendai Framework For Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
- Lack of proper coordination between the central and state government.
- Improper communication that leads to unpreparedness among the communities.
- Lack of awareness among local people about the time of impact and magnitude of the disaster.
- Ecologically sensitive areas like mining zone, national park or wild life sanctuary are vulnerable to natural disasters like cyclones.
- Lack of coordination between the local communities makes the rescue operation more difficult and thus casualties are increase in post-disaster scenario.
Increased Industrial activity, deforestation, encroachments of wetlands, pollution due to vehicles across the planet are causing the nature more unstable and unpredictable. Science and Technology can warn us about upcoming natural calamity like cyclone but science still incapable to save living organisms and properties from Nature’s wrath.
India should prepare to mitigate and deflect the destruction caused by Cyclones.India need to invest more on research and development on technology, communication and remote sensing satellites for more accurate and efficient weather forecast. Strict guidelines and command structure involving the participation and cooperation of local communities including the state and central government in the affected area should be incorporated.