TextBooq https://www.textbooq.in Success Simplified! Fri, 23 Oct 2020 18:10:46 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.5.1 https://secureservercdn.net/ TextBooq https://www.textbooq.in 32 32 Indian Railways Current Affairs 2020 Pdf for RRB NTPC https://www.textbooq.in/2020/10/indian-railways-current-affairs-2020-pdf-for-rrb-ntpc.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=indian-railways-current-affairs-2020-pdf-for-rrb-ntpc https://www.textbooq.in/2020/10/indian-railways-current-affairs-2020-pdf-for-rrb-ntpc.html#respond Thu, 22 Oct 2020 17:45:58 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1903 Indian Railways Current Affairs 2020 Pdf for RRB NTPC RRB NTPC 2019 notification was released in February 2019. Now almost after one and a half year, the most anticipated exam is going to be scheduled from 15th December. The RRB NTPC examination will be consisting General awareness section which gives […]

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Indian Railways Current Affairs 2020 Pdf for RRB NTPC

RRB NTPC 2019 notification was released in February 2019. Now almost after one and a half year, the most anticipated exam is going to be scheduled from 15th December. The RRB NTPC examination will be consisting General awareness section which gives a special focus on current affairs. RRB NTPC current affairs include railways as one of the concentrated topics. The candidates, who are preparing for RRB NTPC examination should stay updated with the recent development in the Indian railways.

Indian Railways Current Affairs 2020 Pdf for RRB NTPC

Hence, the article will be providing Important Indian Railways Current Affairs 2020 for RRB NTPC along with the pdf module at the end of the article. Indian Railways Current Affairs Pdf for RRB NTPC will be made available in our telegram channel. The download link will be provided along with.


The article will be updated with the time. So, bookmark the page for further updates. A completed and updated pdf will be made available in the Telegram Channel just before a week of commencement of the RRB NTPC examination. 
Indian Railways Current affairs 2020 for RRB NTPC
  • Jeevan is a low-cost ventilator, which has been developed by Indian Railways at its Kapurthala rail coach factory.
  • Ahmedabad railway station will get a sanitizing tunnel to test COVID symptoms of passengers.
  • Indian Railways has launched a mobile doctor booth called ‘CHARAK’ for zero-contact check-ups.
  • Southern Railways (Thiruvananthapuram division) and Kerala Circle of Postal department have initiated to establish tie-up with the door delivery and pick up of parcels to help the public during the lockdown.
  • South Central Railway has launched ‘Rail-Bot’ or ’R-BOT’ which is a robotic device to help in the hospitals to manage activities like supplying medicines, medical accessories, to serve food to the patients.
  • Indian Railways gets its most Powerful Engine WAG 12. Indian Railways operationalized its 1st 12,000 horsepower (hp) electric made in India Locomotive WAG12(with Number 60027) from Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Station (Mughalsarai Junction), Uttar Pradesh to Shivpur.
  • An Artificial Intelligence-based Robot called ‘Captain Arjun’ has been inducted in the Central Railway zone.
  • Ministry of Railways will set up a solar power plant in Bina, Madhya Pradesh.
Know about Solar Power plant project in Bina, Madhya Pradesh

The Solar Power plant project will be established under the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Scheme. It will be built by India’s largest power generation equipment manufacturer- Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL).  The solar project is aimed to produce 1.7 MWp solar energy at Madhya Pradesh’s Bina district that will connect directly to the Overhead Traction System of the Indian Railways. The solar power project pact was signed between the Indian Railways and BHEL in October 2019. The Solar Power project is expected to save Rs 1.37 crore for the Indian Railways in a year along with approximately 25 lakh units of energy production each year.

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Know All About India’s First Anti Radiation Missile Rudram-I https://www.textbooq.in/2020/10/know-all-about-indias-first-anti-radiation-missile-rudram-i.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=know-all-about-indias-first-anti-radiation-missile-rudram-i https://www.textbooq.in/2020/10/know-all-about-indias-first-anti-radiation-missile-rudram-i.html#respond Tue, 13 Oct 2020 14:30:11 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1865 Know all about India’s First Anti Radiation Missile Rudram-I Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has successfully test-fired India’s first-ever New Generation Anti Radiation Missile (NGARM) RudraM-I on 9th October 2020. Sukhoi-30 MKI fighter aircraft was used to test-fire Rudram-I from Wheeler Island off the coast of Odisha. Here, the […]

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Know all about India’s First Anti Radiation Missile Rudram-I

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has successfully test-fired India’s first-ever New Generation Anti Radiation Missile (NGARM) RudraM-I on 9th October 2020. Sukhoi-30 MKI fighter aircraft was used to test-fire Rudram-I from Wheeler Island off the coast of Odisha. Here, the article will guide to Know all about India’s First Anti Radiation Missile Rudram-I.

Know all about India’s First Anti Radiation Missile Rudram-I

Know all about India’s First Anti Radiation Missile Rudram-I

Do You Know?
Rudram is a Sanskrit word which means “remover of sorrows“.
What is an Anti-Radiation Missile (ARM)?

Anti-Radiation Missiles are designed to detect, track, and neutralize the radiation emitting sources i.e. enemy radar system, radio communication sites, tracking system and neutralize the enemy‘s frequency jamming system. Anti-Radiation Missiles basically neutralizes the adversary’s air defense system.

Features of an Anti-Radiation Missile (ARM)

  1. ARM is mainly meant for the suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) that can target the enemy from a range of altitudes.
  2. ARM has an Inertial Navigation System which gives it a satellite-based absolute drift-free position of enemy to target.
  3. It has passive homing head (PHH) for the final attack as PHH can detect targets over a wide band of frequencies.
Development of Rudram-I

Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) is the nodal agency behind the design and development of the anti-radiation missile system along with Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) as other key agencies.

Key Features of Rudram-I
  • It is an Air to Surface missile.
  • It is designed with Suppression of Enemy Air Defence (SEAD) capability
  • Weight: 140kg
  • Length: 5.5m (18 ft)
  • It has dual-pulsed rocket motor engine
Know about Dual Pulsed Rocket Motor Engine

A pulsed rocket motor engine is a multiple pulse solid-fuel rocket motor engine which enables to overcome the limitation of solid propellant motors which cannot be easily shut down and reignited.  This technology was acquired by DRDO from Israel. Israel helped India through the transfer of technology during the Barak-8 missile development. Now DRDO has mastered Dual Pulsed Rocket Motor Engine.

  • Operational range is up to 200 km depending upon launching condition
  • It can hit the target with pinpoint accuracy
  • It has Inertial navigation system (INS) with NAVIC satellite guidance to locate enemy
What is NAVIC?

NAVIC stands for Navigation with Indian Constellation. It is the Indian Navigation system that operates based on data of satellite networks, controlled and monitored by ISRO.


Only five countries have their own navigation system

  • USA: Global Positioning System or GPS
  • RUSSIA: Global Navigation Satellite System or GLONASS
  • CHINA: BeiDou
  • EU: Galileo


  • It can be launched from a range of altitudes of 500m to 15km with a range of speeds of 0.6 Mach to 2 Mach
  • Right now it is tested with Sukhoi-30 MKI fighter aircraft, but the missile can be adapted and used in other fighter aircraft like Dassault Mirage 2000, Tejas, Tejas Mk 2, Rafale, etc.
Why is this ARM Rudram-I so special?
  • The Rudram-I has on-board passive homing head (PHH) armed with broadband capability, a system that can detect, classify, and engage targets over a wide band of frequencies. PHH operates with the D-J band which makes it capable to detect radio frequency emission from 100km away. Once the Rudram missile locks on the target, it is capable of striking the target with pin-point accuracy even if the radiation source switched off in between.
  • The missile is being compared to the air-to-surface missile AGM-88E or Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile that was inducted by the US Navy in 2017 as it has the capability to strike on relocatable Integrated Air Defence targets even after shutdown.
What’s next?

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is working to install new software upgradations to track and neutralize a larger variety of targets under various operational conditions. DRDO is also working to develop a ground-based variant of existing ARM to be launched from a mobile launcher.

Which countries other than India do have Anti-Radiation Missile?

  • Russia uses AMR Kh-31
  • YJ-91 Chinese AMR based on Kh-31
  • AGM-88 HARM US anti-radiation missile
  • ALARM RUAKI I British ARM with loiter capability
  • Brazilian MAR-I
Significance of Rudram-I in Indian Air Force 
  • Rudram has been developed to enhance its Suppression of Enemy’s Air Defence (SEAD) strength,
    neutralizing or disrupting the operations of the adversary’s early warning radars, command and control systems, surveillance systems that use radio frequencies and give inputs for anti-aircraft weaponry, can be very crucial.
  • Modern-day warfare is way-more network-centric. The defense mechanism is based on detection, surveillance, and communication systems that are integrated with the weapons systems.
  • It is to be noted that India is heavily dependent on either USA or Russia for acquiring defense equipment, but instead, India is pushing hard for the indigenously-built weapons. It is a clear shift towards being independent in weapon development.
  • Rudram-I could be a key role-player during the India-China border dispute. China already posses HQ-9 Air defense System which is a Chinese version of the Russian S-300. China also has the Russian S-400 Missile Defense System. It is to be noted that China has deployed a series of Air defense Systems along with some unmanned radar stations at the border of Ladakh and Arunachal Pradesh region.
  • Rudram-I is considered as the perfect complementary development of the Indian weapon system. Brahmos Missile already tested with Sukhoi-30 MKI fighter aircraft. So, the Indian Air Force now capable to suppress the Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) with Rudram-I which could be followed by the destruction or Destruction of Enemy Air Defences (DEAD) of the same by Brahmos Missile. In a nutshell, Rudram-I will emerge as a game-changer for India in the current unstable geopolitical scenario in Asian Continent as well as on a global scale.

Also Read What is S-400 Missile Defense System?


Rudram-I is definitely going to boost the air-dominance capabilities of the Indian Air force. The development will also accelerate further research and development on the up-gradation of the existing missile system. Thus India will be emerging as a regional superpower in the weapon development field. Hence, it will reduce India’s dependence on the USA and Russia for missile and other weapon systems which in turn will be reflected in recovering the current account deficit in the long run.


The article is written to get a complete idea on Anti Radiation Missile Rudram-I current affairs for UPSC and other competitive government job examination and give a comprehensive guide on Know All About India’s First Anti Radiation Missile Rudram-I

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Know All About Atal Tunnel and it’s Strategic Importance https://www.textbooq.in/2020/10/know-all-about-atal-tunnel-and-its-strategic-importance.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=know-all-about-atal-tunnel-and-its-strategic-importance https://www.textbooq.in/2020/10/know-all-about-atal-tunnel-and-its-strategic-importance.html#respond Sun, 11 Oct 2020 14:34:31 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1851 Know All About Atal Tunnel and it’s Strategic Importance Prime  Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the world’s longest highway tunnel in Himachal Pradesh on 3rd October. Depending on its situation, the Atal Tunnel in Himachal Pradesh has a significant Strategic Importance. The tunnel was initially named as Rohtang tunnel which later […]

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Know All About Atal Tunnel and it’s Strategic Importance

Prime  Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the world’s longest highway tunnel in Himachal Pradesh on 3rd October. Depending on its situation, the Atal Tunnel in Himachal Pradesh has a significant Strategic Importance. The tunnel was initially named as Rohtang tunnel which later on renamed after Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Here we will discuss Atal Tunnel current affairs for UPSC and other competitive government job examinations. 

Let’s learn

Know All About Atal Tunnel and it's Strategic Importance

History of Rohtang Tunnel Project 
  • The former prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru envisaged a ropeway to Rohtang Pass for the sake of local tribes in 1960.
  • Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced the Rohtang tunnel project in 2002.
  • The announcement was followed by the feasibility study of the project which was carried out by RITES limited.
  • The initial estimated project cost was clocked at ₹500 crores.
  • The official technical and strategical approval for the project was given to The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) in 2003.
  • The bidding of the tenders of the project was started in 2007.
  • The foundation stone of the project was laid in 2010 by UPA chairperson Sonia Gandhi.
  • The project was expected to be completed by February 2015 but the pace of the project slowed down due to various natural phenomena like the heavy water flow of Seri Nullah which flows over the project, the rock structure in the Himalayan range, etc.
Atal Tunnel Facts
  • Atal Tunnel Length: 9.02 km
  • The tunnel is named after the former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
  • The tunnel is situated in the Pir Panjal range of Himalayas at an altitude of 10,000 feet from the Mean Sea Level (MSL)
  • The tunnel passes through the Rohtang pass
  • The tunnel has been structured to withstand a traffic density of 3,000 cars and 1,500 trucks per day,  and a maximum speed of each vehicle of 80 kmph
  • The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) completed the project
  • The cost of the project is ₹3,200 crores
Salient Features of The Atal tunnel

  • The tunnel is designed to provide all-weather connectivity
  • The tunnel contains an emergency escape tunnel in the main tunnel in case of any contingency
  • The tunnel is equipped with a broadcasting system and an automatic incident detection system with CCTV cameras every 250 meters
  • The tunnel was designed with semi-transverse ventilation and SCADA controlled fire fighting system to give an extra edge to its security.
  • The tunnel also serves telephone service in every 150 meters and emergency exit in every 500 meters gap
  • BSNL has installed three 4G base transceiver stations (BTSs) for uninterrupted 4G connectivity throughout the tunnel
Atal Tunnel Map View

Atal Tunnel in map

Strategic Importance of Atal Tunnel
  • The Atal tunnel connects Manali, Himachal Pradesh to the Lahaul-Spiti valley, Leh and reduces on-road travel time to Leh up to five hours and on-road travel distance by 46 km. It gives a significant strategic upper hand and an upgraded dimension to India’s border infrastructure amidst the India-China border dispute in Ladakh. Transportation of troops and supplies will be easier and faster through the tunnel in an emergency.
  • The tunnel will be very beneficial to the farmers, horticulturalists as they will have a faster and shorter route to New Delhi to sell their products in the markets.
  • The tunnel will boost the tourism ecosystem in North India (Himachal Pradesh to Ladakh region)
  • The project is a boon for the people of Lahaul-Spiti valley as the region remains cut from the rest of India for almost half of the year due to heavy snow-fall.

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September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020 https://www.textbooq.in/2020/10/september-current-affairs-monthly-pdf-of-2020-for-ssc-rrb-ntpc.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=september-current-affairs-monthly-pdf-of-2020-for-ssc-rrb-ntpc https://www.textbooq.in/2020/10/september-current-affairs-monthly-pdf-of-2020-for-ssc-rrb-ntpc.html#comments Fri, 02 Oct 2020 05:15:46 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1740 September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020 for SSC, RRB NTPC September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020 is aimed at providing the most important guide to current affairs question answer with current affairs monthly pdf download option at the end of the article. September Current Affairs 2020 pdf download will […]

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September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020 for SSC, RRB NTPC

September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020 is aimed at providing the most important guide to current affairs question answer with current affairs monthly pdf download option at the end of the article. September Current Affairs 2020 pdf download will help you to revise the full September month current affairs in English in a very fast and time-saving way. This Current Affairs Monthly Pdf is very important for the upcoming government jobs like SSC CGL, RRB NTPC, etc. This monthly edition of Current Affairs for SSC CGL and Current Affairs for RRB NTPC is specially designed on the basis of the latest current affairs pattern. The students who are appearing for RRB NTPC, they should opt for our previous editions of monthly current affairs for RRB NTPC.

September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020

September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020

Features of TextBooq‘s Current Affairs Monthly Module

  • All topics are categorically distributed in September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020 for SSC, RRB NTPC, thus it will be easier for students to memorize.
  • All the one-liners are brief and to the point.
  • There are no unnecessary points for time waste.
  • PDF is provided at the end of the article where you will find a few more extra points and topics. The PDF is made mobile friendly.
  • You will find the September Current Affairs Monthly Pdf of 2020 for SSC, RRB NTPC at the end of the article.
  • The current affairs monthly pdf is specially designed on the basis of the latest current affairs pattern.
Important Appointments in September 2020
  • Vinod Kumar Yadav appointed the first Chairman and Chief Executive of the Railway Board
  • Aveek Sarkar has been elected chairman of the Press Trust of India.
  • Dwayne Bravo is appointed Brand Ambassador of ‘SBOTOP’ a sportsbook brand.
  • Ayushmann Khurrana is appointed as Brand Ambassador of Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance.
  • Bhuvneshwar Kumar and Smriti Mandhana are appointed as brand ambassador for Playerzpot, the sports gaming platform.
  • Paresh Rawal is appointed Chairman of National School of Drama
  • Ayushman Khurrana is appointed UNICEF’s celebrity advocate for children’s right campaign ‘For Every Child’
  • Sameer Kumar Khare is appointed Executive Director of Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Asian Development Bank has appointed Takeo Konishi as Country Director of India.
  • Rajesh Khullar is appointed Executive Director of World Bank
  • Yoshihide Suga is elected Prime Minister of Japan replacing Shinzo Abe.
  • Sachin Tendulkar is appointed brand ambassador of Paytm First Games.
  • Amitabh Bachchan will be first Indian to be Alexa’s Voice Assistant.
  • Anil Dhasmana is appointed the Chief of the National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO), replacing Satish C. Jha.
  • Subhash Kamath elected as the Advertising Standards Council of India.
  • Sameer Kumar Khare appointed Executive Director at Asian Development Bank
  • Khushi Chindaliya, a 17-year-old Indian girl, is appointed Regional Ambassador for India by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  • Mohamed Hussein Roble is elected Prime Minister of Somalia.
  • Sonu Sood is appointed Brand Ambassador of Acer India.
  • Alexander Lukashenko is appointed as President of Belarus.
  • Flight Lieutenant Shivangi Singh becomes India’s first woman fighter pilot to fly Rafale Combat Aircraft.
  • Aamir Khan appointed Brand Ambassador for CEAT Limited.
  • Yuvraj Singh appointed Brand Ambassador for Akash Educational Service Ltd.
  • Neetu David is appointed Chairman of Women’s National Selection Panel by BCCI.
  • Moctar Ouane is appointed as Prime Minister of Mali.
  • S S Deswal is appointment the DG of NSG (National Security Guard).
  • Shekhar Kapur is appointed President of FTII (Film and Television Institute of India), replacing BP Singh.
  • P D Vaghela is appointed Chairman of TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India), replacing R S Sharma.
  • Aamir Khan is appointed Brand Ambassador of Vedantu an online Learning Platform.
  • Usha Padhee becomes first woman DG of Bureau of Civil Aviation Security.
Important Awards and Honour in September 2020
  • State Bank of India will receive Brandon Human Capital Management (HCM) Excellence Award 2020, global recognition for its HR initiative, “Nayi Disha”.
  • Sir David Attenborough has been awarded the India Gandhi Peace Prize for 2019
  • Poonam Khatri an Indian Police Officer, honoured with World Championship status in Wushu World Championship
  • Aditya Puri of HDFC Bank and is conferred with Lifetime Achievement Awards by Euromoney Awards for Excellence 2020.
  • Fiumicino International Airport (FCO) in Rome, Italy and is awarded World’s first 5-star Anti-COVID Award.
  • Margaret Atwood has been awarded for 2020 Dayton Literacy Peace Prize’s Lifetime Achievement
  • Udit Singhal, the founder of Glass2Sand, is named in 2020 Class of 17 Young Leaders for Sustainable Development Goals.
  • West Bengal was awarded WSIS award for its Sabuj Sathi scheme by the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS).
  • Outstanding Drama Series ‘Succession’ won Emmy Awards 2020.
  • PM Narendra Modi is awarded Ig Noble Prize 2020 for Medical Education. Note: Ig Nobel Prize is a satirical and parody award given out by Improbable Research magazine every year since 1991. Don’t confuse with Nobel Prize. A B Vajpayee also won this award in 1998.
  • Usha Mangeshkar will be awarded Gan Samragni Lata Mangeshkar Award 2020-21 by Maharashtra.
  • Vikas Khanna won the 2020 Asia Game Changer Award for feeding millions amid Covid19.
  • Ramesh Pokhriyak ‘Nishank’, Union Minister of Education awarded the first-ever “AICTE Visvesvaraya Best Teachers Award 2020”


Important Government Schemes/Programme/Campaign/Initiative in September 2020
  • Mission Karmayogi, a scheme is launched for bringing post-recruitment reforms in civil services
  • Five Star Villages’ Scheme is launched by India Post to provide universal coverage of the postal scheme to rural areas.
  • Climate-Smart Cities Assessment Framework 2.0 (CSCAF 2.0) is launched by Minister of State for Housing and Urban Affairs, Hardeep Singh Puri, to fight climate change.
  • Street for People Challenge’ is an initiative that aims to inspire Indian cities to adopt measures to make cities more walkable and pedestrian-friendly.
  • GARIMA Scheme launched for core Sanitisation workers by the Odisha government.
  • My Family, My Responsibility’ Campaign is launched by Maharashtra to combat the COVID-19 during the unlock phase.
  • Karnataka launched the loan disbursal programme with the name ‘Arthika Spandana’.
  • NASSCOM FutureSkills and Microsoft have joined hands to launch a nation-wide AI skilling initiative to provide Microsoft’s AI, machine learning and data science expertise to students.
  • Rajasthan and the Small Industrial Development Bank of India (SIDBI) have signed MoU for cluster-based development of MSMEs.
  • Ghar Tak Fibre Scheme on Highway Projects launched in Bihar.
  • Mukhya Mantri Kisan Kalyan Yojana is launched by Madhya Pradesh to support farmers.
  • Mukhyamantrir Grammya Paribhan Achoni Yojana launched by Assam to provide light motor vehicle service.
  • Moksha Kalash Yojana 2020 launched by Rajasthan to offer free bus service to family members of the deceased to river Ganga at Haridwar.
  • Delhi launched a helpline ‘Sehat evam Poshan Saathinwas‘, to ensure children under six years, get nutritional supplements along with immunisation doses.

September 2020 Monthly Current Affairs pdf Download Free

Here, we are providing September Monthly Current Affairs pdf 2020 Download Free. The monthly pdf covers wide-range of categorized topics

  • Topics covered
  1. Appointments
  2. Awards and Honour
  3. Government Schemes
  4. Science and Technology
  5. Index and Ranking
  6. Important days and themes
  7. Defence News
  8. NASA/ISRO Space news
  9. Banking/Economy/Finance/Business/Agriculture
  10. Important Summit/Conference/Event
  11. Indian Railways
  12. Sports
  13. Apps and Portals
  14. Obituary
  15. Places and State in news
  16. Books and Author
  17. International Affairs
  18. Miscellaneous                                                                         

September Monthly Current Affairs pdf 2020 Download Free


How to Prepare Current Affairs for RRB NTPC and SSC

Nowadays most of the government job examination is conducted through Computer Based Test. The candidate needs to select an option given on the computer screen. Now, if we focus on SSC and RRB NTPC, we find the pattern is very much similar. RRB NTPC was conducted last time in 2016. After analyzing recent government job examinations like SSC CHSL, SSC CGL, SSC MTS exams, we conclude that students should focus on some particular topics of current affairs. Current Affairs for RRB NTPC or Current Affairs for SSC CGL, CHSL mainly includes questions from Awards and Honour, Appointments, Government Schemes, Defence exercise and Missile news, Books and Author, Obituary, Applications and Portals, Sports, etc. While you are preparing Current Affairs for RRB NTPC or Current Affairs for SSC CGL, CHSL, you need to prepare the last three months Current Affairs. But you should prepare the last six months Current Affairs to be on the safe side. We are providing the last five months’ Current Affairs Monthly Pdf here (including September). Stay tuned for October and November Current Affairs Monthly Pdf, which will be uploaded in due time. Hope this will give you a clear understanding and guidance on How to Prepare Current Affairs for RRB NTPC and SSC.

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All About Farm Bill 2020 Protest, Pros and Cons

The government of India has introduced three agriculture bills with an aim to double the income of Indian farmers. But there is a nationwide uproar against the Farm Bill 2020. Farmers from different parts of the country are opposing the ‘historic’ Farm Bill 2020. Let’s know All About Farm Bill 2020 Protest, Pros and Cons.

Let’s learn.

All About Farm Bill 2020 Protest, Pros and Cons

All About Farm Bill 2020 Protest, Pros and Cons

The Parliament has passed three agriculture bills:

  • The Farmers Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, 2020
  • The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, 2020
  • The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2020.

Origin of Farm Bill 2020 Protest

Bhartya Kisan Union‘, All India Kisan Sangharsh Coordination Committee (AIKSCC) and some other farmer unions asked for permission from the Harayana government in order to conduct a peaceful protest or a rally on 10 September. The Haryana government denied the plea of rally citing the crisis of COVID-19. But the farmers started their rally with more than 100 tractors on the road with the slogan ‘Kiasn Bachao, Mandi Bachao‘. Many people called this protest as ‘Tractor Protest‘ also. At some places peaceful protest became violent and police had to lathi-charge the kisans.

Do You now?

Bharatiya Kisan Union or Indian Farmers’ Union is a non-partisan organization that represents farmers in India. This organization was founded by Chaudhary Charan Singh in Punjab in 1978.

Problems of Agriculture Marketing in India in the context of Farm Bill 2020

India’s small and marginal farmers have been struggling with acute poverty due to the multilayered problems and strictly controlled agriculture sector. The agricultural market was entirely controlled by money lenders and traders since independence.

Problems faced by Indian farmers

Problems faced by Indian farmers

The farmers were being exploited by these money lenders and traders while selling goods in the market. The government introduced APMC (Agriculture Produce Market Committee) to solve the problem.

What is APMC (Agriculture Produce Market Committee)?

  • Agriculture Produce Market Committee in India was conceptualized in the British period to make the available supply of pure cotton at reasonable prices to the textile mills of Manchester. In 1928, the Royal Commission on Agriculture issued some guidelines for the establishment of regulated markets.
  • APMC Act was introduced in 1963.
  • Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) is a comprehensive agricultural marketing network where agricultural marketing is done through Mandis in the specific market area that regulates the listed agricultural produce and livestock.

APMC was established with an aim to take control over the racket of money lenders and traders and to save farmers from being exploited.

How does APMC work?

Agriculture is a state subject that is why every state has its own APMC network. The state divides APMC area depending upon the state’s volume. A trader needs to acquire the license to operate in a particular Mandi or APMC. Similarly, farmers are only allowed to sell their agriculture goods in regional Mandis only.

There are many middlemen between farmers and traders in the existing APMC process.

First, the farmers will visit Mandis where the MSP or price discovery will be done through auction. Then the goods will be taken to traders through commission agents or arthians. Then comes transaction agents who inform the farmers about the sold price. The transaction agents charge market fees from the farmers. The whole process is full of corruption. Thus the existing APMC system can not save farmers from being exploited. 

How does APMC work

How does APMC work

Then the Indian government brought the MSP or Minimum Support Price.

What is Minimum Support Price?

  • The minimum support price is the output of the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).
  • It is the price at which the government purchases crops or agricultural goods from the farmers to support the farmers by protecting from sudden and excessive fall in price due to various reasons.
  • There are only 22 crops that come under the cover of MSP.
  • The government of India decides the MSP.

Minimum Support Price (MSP) was envisioned as a powerful instrument in stabilizing the economy. But at ground level, the reality of poor management of MSP concept is quite visible.

Do you Know?
Shanta Kumar Committee was set up to bring reforms in food corporation. The report of the committee revealed that only 6% of Indian farmers receive Minimum Support Price (MSP) in the country.
Drawbacks of APMC (Agriculture Produce Market Committee)

APMC Act was enacted by almost all the states during the 1960s or later to bring transparency in Agricultural Marketing in India. This was a small part of the overall food security in the country, remunerative prices to farmers, and fair prices to consumers. However vision the APMC was not a complete success.

  • APMC acts basically divided the Agriculture market in India geographically.
  • APMC gave rise to a complex system as it is applicable to ‘notified agricultural products’ which varies from state to state.
  • Mandi uses commissions agents or arthians who started the license raj system.
  • Only closest to state governments are able to get the license of traders and commission agents.
  • Too many middlemen increase the goods price and lots of goods are wasted in the process.

For example, a good of 5 rupees is sold at 50 rupees to consumers and the rest amount gets divided among all the middlemen.

Know about one more ground level corruption in APMC system that affects farmers

The traders form a union or group among themselves and insist farmers sell at a minimum price. When the farmers ask them to buy at a price more than MSP, they deny and wait for the agriculture goods to decay. As most of the agriculture goods are perishable in nature, farmers left no option, but to sell at a minimum price.

Do you Know?
It is to be noted that Bihar repealed the APMC act in 2006 and Kerala never enacted APMC act

Ministry of Agriculture published a report in 2012-13, which revealed that the majority of small and marginal farmers were being done by the farmers to the non-APMC traders and not in the APMC. So, MSP is an irrelevant concept here.

Now let’s move focus to the Farm Bill 2020. 

Pros of Farm Bill 2020
  • The Farmers Produce trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill allows restriction-free intra and inter-state trade of farm produce.
Previously, farm produce could only be sold at notified wholesale markets, or mandis, run by Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee (APMCs). Each APMC had licensed middlemen who would buy from farmers at prices set by auction.
  • So the new Farm Bill 2020 proposed that it will give freedom of choice to the farmers. They can sell it freely across the nation without bringing into APMCs.
  • The new farm bill 2020 empowers the farmers to bypass the middlemen to sell all the agriculture produce directly to institutional buyers.
  • The proposed farm bill formulates a standard framework on the agreements that would help farmers to involve with agri-business companies, retailers, exporters directly while the small and marginal farmer will have access to modern technology.
Cons of Farm Bill 2020
  • The farmers’ groups are worried as they think the new farm bill 2020 will expose them to corporates who have more bargaining power and resources than small or marginal farmers.
  • Indian farmers will be allowed to sell their goods at the best possible prices across India. This apparently sounds good. But look at the reality.
If a farmer from Tamil Nadu gets the best price in Uttar Pradesh, how will he travel? by train? How will he manage to change trains through the journey with his goods? Will he hire labours? How a small and marginal farmer will afford to pay for labours? Nevertheless, It will take two or three days to reach UP. The agricultural goods will either rot or decay in the course. Hence, all that sounds good, does not practically fit perfect always.
  • The existing APMC system has created a monopoly and the newly proposed policy is not removing the theory of monopoly either. There is even more probability of an ecosystem of monopoly under the big corporate institutions.

Let’s summarise

Government's perceptionFarmer's perception
Farmers would be able to sell their products in anywhere in IndiaHow can a small farmer afford travel cost across India?
Areas outside the APMCs will be tax freeThere is no proper guideline on tax free zones however if the government makes the nearby area tax free then it will be a heavy loss for them
Private APMCs will set up.Private APMCs will not be transparent and regulated.
Private companies will opt for private APMCs to save tax, hence farmers will face heavy loss.
What Are The Farmers Demanding?

  • To roll back these ordinances.
  • To protect the existing APMC mandi system.
  • To clear the loans of the farmers.
  • A law should be enacted for MSP to be at least 50% more than the weighted average cost of production and if the MSP is not paid, it should be a punishable crime.
  • A law should be put in place that guarantees payment from the buyers through middlemen that have always jar been the norm to ensure that banks don’t deduct the money in the name of loan recovery.
Agriculture is a state subject, then how can the central government enact a law on agriculture?

There are three lists in the 7th Schedule of the Indian constitution.

  • List I contains the areas where the center can enact laws
  • List II contains the areas where the state can enact laws
  • List III or concurrent list contains the areas where both the center and state can enact laws

Agriculture comes under List II of the 7th Schedule.

But here we should refer Article 249 which empowers the parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest. There is one more reference of entry 33 of List III which gives power to the center to enact laws on Agriculture.

Why are State Governments opposing the Farm Bill 2020?
  • APMC will remove the entire middlemen structure hence the chain system under the corporates closest to state governments will get hurt.
  • State governments impose taxes on APMC or mandis to collect revenue. The new system is going to hurt that tax collection mechanism under the individual states.
  • The Farm Bill 2020 proposes to run a parallel APMC network, hence the state government’s control will entirely be lost of existing APMC system.

We came across the enormous negative impact of COVID-19 in the first quarter of 2020-2021. The agricultural sector and allied activities are the only sectors that grew by 3.4%, while the country’s economic contraction was figured at 23.9%.

So, the sector which feeds the nation is in distress. The farmer’s agony will never bring positive growth unless the government addresses the whole situation on an urgent basis. Here are some solutions, the government can work upon.

  • India should definitely invest more in Agriculture sector.  About 70% of rural households depend entirely on agriculture and associated allied activities and 86% of India’s farmers are categorized as small and marginal. The agriculture sector is the primary sector, if it is given a boost it will definitely spread the positive chain reaction to the Indian economy.
  • The Farm Bill 2020 proposes a good intention but had multiple flaws. Certain amendments should be made to the Bills in order to protect Indian farmers. The government should consider what the farmers are demanding. The governments do listen to corporates, Bollywood celebrities, Cricketers, but why not farmers? Why does the government never talk about the liberty and interests of farmers?
  • The LPG ideology or the ideology of Liberalization, Privatization, or Globalization came into light in 1991. Neo-liberalism’ or ‘liberalism ‘ is an ideology that supports the concept of the free market. The free Market basically refers to a market with zero interference of the government in the business sector. The Indian government also adopted the ideology to create a free economy at that time. Similarly, the agriculture market should be made free. The government should restrict its control over the agriculture market.
  • As it is previously stated in the article that only  6% of Indian farmers get the benefit of Minimum Support Price (MSP). It is the lack of awareness among the farmers. Proper initiatives should be taken to educate and empower farmers.
Do you Know?
As per the data from NCRB (National Crime Record Bureau), more than 1 lakh suicide cases have been registered in 2018, 7% among the figure were farmers.

The above data clearly shows the epitome of the sufferings of Indian farmers and the height of mismanagement of existing agricultural policy. Hence the reform is essential.

As far as the reform is the primary concern, the government should focus on solving the existing problems of the Indian agriculture market before implementing a new one.

The farmer is the only man in our economy who buys everything at retail, sells everything at wholesale, and pays the freight both ways.
John E Kennedy


The article is aimed at giving a transparent view of the ongoing agitation of the farmers against the new Farm Bill 2020 along with addressing the agricultural marketing problems.


Here is a Ebook on Agricultural cooperatives development – Food and Agriculture. You can download for more comprehensive view on Agricultural cooperatives development – Food and Agriculture.


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What is UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act)? https://www.textbooq.in/2020/09/what-is-uapa-unlawful-activities-prevention-act.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=what-is-uapa-unlawful-activities-prevention-act https://www.textbooq.in/2020/09/what-is-uapa-unlawful-activities-prevention-act.html#respond Wed, 23 Sep 2020 04:02:26 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1646 What is UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act)? The Government of India enacted the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967 to prevent terrorism activities to protect the sovereignty and integrity of the country. In this article, we will discuss What is UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act) and the application,  limitations, and controversies of […]

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What is UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act)?

The Government of India enacted the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967 to prevent terrorism activities to protect the sovereignty and integrity of the country. In this article, we will discuss What is UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act) and the application,  limitations, and controversies of the same.

Let’s learn.

What is UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act)_

Genesis of UAPA

India was engaged in an external war with China in 1962. But at that time India was disturbed internally too. C N Annadurai from Tamil Nadu, the founder of the political party, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was demanding a separate Tamil country. India was literally in dire straits due to double-sided disturbances. That was the time when the lawmakers conceptualized to combat such internal unlawful activities.

The Unlawful Activities Prevention Act is the output of the recommendations of the National Integration Council. The UAPA came into existence by the 16th Amendment Act, 1963. The law was basically introduced to tackle a wide range of domestic disturbances by enforcing restrictions on the Fundamental Rights of citizens of India.

UAPA basically restricts three Fundamental Rights:

  • Freedom of Speech and expression.
  • Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
  • Right to form associations or unions.
Do you Know?
Unlawful Activities Prevention Act is an anti-terror legislation which is enforced by the counter terrorism agency i.e National Investigation Agency.
Application of Unlawful Activities Prevention Act
  • Unlawful Activities Prevention Act is applicable across the entire country
  • Any Indian or foreign national charged under Unlawful Activities Prevention Act is liable for punishment.
  • Place (Outside or inside India) of the commitment of crime or offense does not come into consideration under UAPA.
  • Persons in the service of the Government are also in the radius of UAPA.
  • Persons on ships and aircraft, registered in India are also under the ambit of this act.
  • UAPA is applicable to any combination or body of individuals.
Definition of Unlawful Activity in India

If an individual, organization, or body intends to bring a cession or secession of a part of the territory of India or executes any step to pose a threat to the sovereignty and integrity of India, then the individual or body will be involved in Unlawful Activity.

Chronology National Security Laws in India

  • Preventive Detention Act 1950-1969
  • Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958
  • Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967
  • Maintenance of Internal Security Act, 1971-1977
  • Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Preventive Act, 1985-1995
  • Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2001-2004


Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act, 1987 (TADA) was introduced during the Punjab terror activities and terrorist activities like Kandahar Hijack and Parliament attack paved the way of Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 (POTA). But both the acts (TADA in 1995 and POTA in 2004) have been scrapped due to wide scale misuse over the time. The events was just immediately followed by the amendments in UAPA in 2004.
Amendments of Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 1967

The amendments in UAPA were introduced for the first time in 2004. Thereafter, UAPA passed through several amendments in 2008, 2012, and most recently in 2019.

  • 2004 Amendments was done in the aftermath of the scrapping of the Prevention of Terrorism Act.
  • A wide range of terrorist activities was included in the 2008 amendments due to the series of bombings in 2006-2008.
  • 2012 Amendment enabled UAPA with rigorous enforcement and the range was increased as the companies, NGOs, and intergovernmental organizations and a list of bodies were added under UAPA surveillance.
  • UAPA act amendment 2019 was very controversial and empowered the central government to designate any individuals or organisation as terrorists over his/her/it’s Unlawful Activity. Section 43 D of 2019 amendments also can detain a charged person or organization for 180 days without filing any charge sheet. The period of 180 days can be further extended. The charged person would not enjoy the right to bail.

It is to be noted that several modifications have been made over the years, which made UAPA more strict in the process.

When could an Individual or Organisation be charged under UAPA 2019 amendments?

There are three conditions:

  • If an Individual or Organisation takes part or commits any terror activities.
  • If an Individual or Organisation advocates or cites unlawful activities.
  • If an Individual or Organisation provides any means of help to such unlawful activities.
Controversy with UAPA Act amendment 2019

The recent amendment in UAPA in 2019 sparked much controversy as it gives the central government a supreme power to declare anyone terrorist‘ on any ground of opposition by using fabricated pieces of evidence. It could come out as an instrument of the state-sanctioned programme of suppression on anyone who opposes the government.

Do you Know?
National Crime Records Bureau Report 2018 cites that the conviction rate of those prosecuted under UAPA was 14.5% in 2015 and increased upto 49.3% in 2017.

The above data clearly shows us the extent of misuse of UAPA of the future of the same.

Let’s take the example of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) student leader Umar Khalid and two students of JNU Meeran Haider and Safoora Zargar were charged under UAPA by Delhi Police for hatching a conspiracy to incite communal violence. But where are the real culprits whose faces were captured in CCTV footage? Why is UAPA not being charged against the identified individuals? 

We could witness another plot of misuse of UAPA. Police used section 13 of UAPA to charge many individuals who were trying to access social media through VPN’s to bypass the internet ban imposed by the government when it invoked Article 370.

There are too many examples to mention. But the UAPA amendments become more significant in the context of the Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019.

Why is Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 2019 so controversial?

  • Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 2019 denies the dissent of the citizens. It empowers to criminalize anyone by assaulting citizens’ right to expression.
  • UAPA completely bypass fundamental rights and related procedures as the charged person would be detained for 180 days and beyond without a charge sheet being filed. It thus directly goes against the Article 21 of the constitution. 
  • It empowers the government to proceed through closed-door hearings in special courts.
  • The government can even use secret witnesses against the charged person or organization.
  • Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, 2019 also empowers the parliament of India to restrict the rights and freedoms of citizens to protect ‘the sovereignty and integrity of India’.
  • The definition of terrorism has been expanded under Section 35 and 36 of Chapter VI. It allows NIA to seize the property of charged Individual or Organization under Section 25 and empowers to investigate cases under UAPA Section 43. 
  • UAPA Act now can designate an individual as a terrorist and allows to add the person to 4th Schedule of UAPA. The person can appeal to denotify the name from 4th Schedule. But here is the controversial part. The person has to appeal to the government for denotification. A review committee will be set up to look into the appeal. Hence the process removes the basic institutional mechanism for judicial review. 
Hence, it is crystal clear that newly amended law can be used as a tool against the opposition and goes beyond the basic principle of democracy in the name of security.

There should be a perfect balance in the creation of a safe and sound society by proving security and maintaining citizen’s rights. Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, amendment 2019 would be snatching fundamental rights of a citizen in the pursuit of a safe Nation. But how can a Nation remain safe if it’s right to speech is taken away? It also denies the judicial principle of ‘innocent until proven guilty’ and violates the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

On the other hand, this modified form of Unlawful Activities Prevention Act would restrict free and unbiased journalism. The plight of Indian journalism already touched the bottom line as India is ranked at 142 on the World Press Freedom Index 2020. Thus UAPA is structured to destructure the fourth estate, the pillar of democracy.

The article is aimed to provide an informative and analytical approach on What is UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act) and it will help you to build your own thought and opinions on What is UAPA (Unlawful Activities Prevention Act).

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States in India and Their Capital and Language in 2020 https://www.textbooq.in/2020/09/states-in-india-and-their-capital-and-language-in-2020.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=states-in-india-and-their-capital-and-language-in-2020 https://www.textbooq.in/2020/09/states-in-india-and-their-capital-and-language-in-2020.html#respond Mon, 21 Sep 2020 16:22:14 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1603 States in India and Their Capital and Language in 2020  There are total 28 states and 9 union territories in India. States in India with capital is one of the most common areas of General Knowledge. India states and their capital and language is an easier topic to memorize and also […]

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States in India and Their Capital and Language in 2020 

There are total 28 states and 9 union territories in India. States in India with capital is one of the most common areas of General Knowledge. India states and their capital and language is an easier topic to memorize and also easier to score. Here we will provide a list of all states in India and their capital and their language.

Let’s learn.

States in India and Their Capital and Language in 2020

Know Some Basics

What Is The Difference Between States and Union Territories?

There are significant differences between states and union territories in terms of governance, structure, and function. Let’s know.

StateUnion Territory
States have their own governmentA Union Territory is administered and controlled by the central government
There is a federal relationship between state and central govt.There is a unitary relationship between UT and central govt.
The constitutional head is the governorExecutive head is the president of India
Chief Ministers of the states are elected by the peopleAn administrator is appointed by the President
Larger in sizeSmaller in size
States have autonomous powers

Union territories do not have autonomous powers.

Types of Union Territories

  • Union territory with legislature.
  • Union territory without legislature.

Delhi, Puducherry, and  Jammu and Kashmir are the Union territories with legislature.

Types of Capital

There are  three types of capitals

  • Administrative: An administrative capital is the place where all executive offices of government are situated. 
  • Legislative: A legislative capital is the one where the state assembly convenes.
  • Judicial: A judicial capital is the place that consists of territorial highcourts.
Article 1 of the Indian constitution defines India as a Union of States and not as a federation of states.
Indian States and Their Capitals and Languages
Indian StateCapitalLanguage
Andhra PradeshAmaravatiTelegu and Urdu
Arunachal PradeshItanagarMiji, Apotanji,
Merdukpen, Tagin,
AssamDispurAssamese and Bodo
GoaPanajiMarathi and Konkani
GujaratGandhinagarGujarati and Hindi
Himachal PradeshShimla (Summer) and Dharmasala (Winter)Hindi, Sanskrit and Pahari
JharkhandRanchiHindi and Maithili
Madhya Pradesh

MaharashtraMumbai (Summer) and Nagpur (Winter)Marathi
MeghalayaShillongKhashi, Jaintia
And Garo
MizoramAizawlMizo and English

Ao, Konyak, Angami,
Sema and Lotha
RajasthanJaipurRajasthani and Hindi
SikkimGangtokBhutia, Hindi, Nepali,
Lepcha, Limbu
Tamil Nadu

TripuraAgartalaBengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, Kakborak
Uttar Pradesh

Lucknow (Administrative capital) and Prayagraj (Judicial capital)Hindi
UttarakhandGairsain (Summer) and Dehradun (Winter)Hindi, Sanskrit
West Bengal


Bengali, Nepali
Union Territories in India and Their Capitals and Languages
Union TerritoryCapital Language
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPort BlairHindi, English
ChandigarhChandigarhEnglish and Hindi
Dadar and Nagar HaveliSilvassaGujarati, Konkani, Marathi
Daman and DiuDamanGujarati, Hindi
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri
LadakhLeh and KargilHindi, English, Ladakhi, Purgi

PuducherryPuducherryTamil, English

How Many Indian States Have More Than One Capital?

There are few states in India, where more than one capitals are administered due to various reasons.

  • Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar (Summer) and Jammu (Winter)
  • Himachal Pradesh: Shimla (Summer) and Dharmasala (Winter)
  • Maharashtra: Mumbai (Summer) and Nagpur (Winter)
  • Uttar Pradesh: Lucknow (Administrative capital) and Prayagraj (Judicial capital)
  • Uttarakhand: Gairsain (Summer) and Dehradun (Winter)
Andhra Pradesh cabinet proposed to have three capitals for the state. Visakhapatnam, Amaravati, and Kurnool will be the executive, legislative, and judicial capitals respectively.
Languages in Different parts of India

Languages in Different parts of India

Do you Know?
The Hindi language was known by different names at different stages of its evolution in different eras. The earliest known name of Hindi is Apabhramsa
Do you Know?
Hindi is the second most spoken language in the world after Mandarin and ahead of English and Spanish.
All the information on the States and capitals of India 2020 are updated as on the date of the publication of the article.
You can download the Indian states and capitals and Language in 2020 pdf using the button at the bottom of the article.

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Important Phrasal Verbs With Meaning for Competitive Exams

 The questions from Phrasal verbs are asked in the English Language Section of almost all Competitive Exams like SSC, IBPS, SEBI, NABARD, etc. In the recent pattern of English Language section, Phrasal verbs are used in the error spotting, sentence improvement, and sentence correction questions. In this article, we will discuss the Most Important Phrasal Verbs for SSC, Bank exams. We will provide the Most Important Phrasal Verbs pdf at the end of the article.


Let’s learn.

Important Phrasal Verbs With Meaning for Competitive Exams

What are Phrasal Verbs?

The English language is all about the use of verbs with prepositions or adverbs to form a variety of meanings. When the verbs are used with prepositions, adverbs, or both, they define a different meaning than they denote as an individual word. These combinations are defined as phrasal verbs and they denote idiomatic meaning only when considered as a whole.

Phrasal Verb Definition: When Verbs are followed by prepositions or adverbs to acquire an idiomatic sense, the combination is known as Phrasal Verbs.

Phrasal Verbs are also known as Group verbs.

These prepositions and adverbs are known in grammar as Particles.
Phrasal Verb Example
  • Set in=start (Verb+preposition)
  • Set up=establish (verb +adverb)
  • Put up with=tolerate (verb +adrerb + preposition)
Types of Phrasal Verbs
Types of Phrasal Verbs

Types of Phrasal Verbs


How to Learn Phrasal Verbs in English

Learning Phrasal verbs in English could be tricky and easy if the method is chosen right. There are many ways to memorize. But here we will focus on Alphabetical and Pictorial way. And always use examples that relate to the events that happen in your day to day life or trending news.

Alphabetical and Pictorial way is a way to note down or preparing notes by alphabetical order. Alphabetical order is a scientific way which helps the human brain to synchronize one by one. And picture with proper examples will help you to remember the phrasal verbs for longer. Then you need to apply all your lesson into sentences and keep on practicing.

Here we will give an example of How to study Phrasal Verbs in English with the verb ‘Put‘.

How to Learn Phrasal Verbs in English

How to Learn Phrasal Verbs in English

Important Phrasal Verbs With Meaning for Banking & SSC Exams

Here we will provide phrasal verb meaning and important phrasal verb list. These Phrasal verbs with examples will help you to sharpen your preparation.

Most used Phrasal verbs list with meaning and phrasal verbs sentences

Phrasal verbs With Account

  • I can not account for (explain) Ramesh babu’s unusual dirty politics.
Phrasal verbs With Act

  • Acts upon (Affects) one’s health.
  • Acting upon (Depending) the news, I went there.
  • This machine does not act up to (As expected) my expectation.
  • He acted for me (on behalf of) while I was ill.
  • I acted on (According to) my brother’s advice. 
Phrasal verbs With Ask

  • He asked for (request for) a glass of milk.
Phrasal verbs With Bear

  • He bore away (won) the first prize.
  • He bore down (overcame) all resistance.
  • He bore off (to carry with pride) the prize.
  • Your point has no bearing on (relevance) the present case.
  • Your report bears out (confirms) his story.
  • Pride bore him up (sustained) in adversity.
  • I cannot bear with (tolerate) such conduct. 
Phrasal verbs With Blow

  • The wind blew away (removed) the dry leaves.
  • The door opened and the boys blew in (into ) the room (arrive noisily, cheerfully).
  • The chimnies blow off (emit) thick smoke.
  • The child blew out (put out) the candle.
  • The storm will soon blow over (stop blowing).
  • The engine blew up (exploded).
  • His abilities have been greatly blown up by his friends (exaggerated).
Phrasal verbs With Break

  • The thief broke away (freed himself) from the jail.
  • His health broke down (deteriorated) through over-work.
  • The sun broke forth (Suddenly appeared) from the clouds.
  • The robbers broke in ( forced their way in) at night.
  • Horses are being broken in (trained) for military purposes.
  • Last night a thief broke into (entered by breaking) my house.
  • The mob broke in upon (enter by force) the meeting.
  • He broke off (stopped) in the middle of his speech.
  • Smallpox has broken out (emergence, spread) in the town.
  • The thief broke out of the prison (escaped by breaking).
  • They broke through (forced a passage) the main gate.
  • The meeting broke up at 10 p.m.
  • He has broken with me (part from).
Phrasal verbs With Bring

  • His ruin was brought about (caused) by his own folly.
  • This will bring down (curtail, curb) the prices of things.
  • The enemy aircraft was brought down.
  • This tree brings forth (produces) good fruit.
  • The subject was brought forward (to bring into the discussion) for discussion in the meeting.
  • My business brings in (yields) good income.
  • They tried to bring in (introduce) a new fashion (or a new custom).
  • Over-eating brings on (causes) dyspepsia.
  • He has brought out (published) a new edition of his book.
  • he patient was brought round (recovered) by careful nursing.
  • After much persuasion, we managed to bring him round (win over).
  • He was brought up by his aunt (reared).
Phrasal verbs With Burst

  • A tiger burst forth (came out suddenly) from the jungle.
  • She burst into (burst into crying) tears at the sight of her son’s misery.
  • He burst out weeping like a child.(burst into crying)
  • The rebels burst upon (came suddenly) the king.
Phrasal verbs With Call

  • I shall call at (visit a place) your house tomorrow morning.
  • Mr. Roy will call me by (pay a short visit) tomorrow.
  • I called for (demanded) his explanation.
  • The situation calls for (requires) immediate action.
  • His heroism called forth (elicited) the admiration of all.
  • Please call in a doctor (invite).
  • The strike was called off (Withdrawn).
  • The noise called off (diverted) my attention.
  • I shall call on (visit a person) you tomorrow.
  • He called on (appealed to) me for help.
  • The troops were called out (retreat) to restore order.
  • The teacher is calling over the roll.
  • I called to (addressed loudly) him from the roof.
  • He was called upon (ordered) to explain his conduct.
  • I shall call upon (visit) him tomorrow.
  • I can not call up (remember) his name.
Phrasal verbs With Carry

  • He carries about a (to carry) pistol wherever he goes.
  • He was carried away by his enthusiasm.
  • He was carried away or off by the current.
  • Cholera has carried off (taken the life of) many of my men.
  • He carried off (won) all the prizes.
  • I shall carry on (continue) the work in your absence.
  • I shall carry out (execute) your orders.
  • He carried the bill through the council.
  • Only courage carried him through (to help in going through) the crisis.
Phrasal verbs With Cast

  • He is casting about for (looking for) an opportunity to escape.
  • He has cast aside or away or off (rejected) his old coat.
  • He was cast down (depressed) by his failure.
  • She cast down her eyes at the mention of her husband’s name.
  • He will cast him out (reject) of the meeting.
Phrasal verbs With Come

  • How did it come about (happen)?
  • I came across (met) him on the way.
  • The night guard came after (to chase) the thief with a big stick.
  • Come along (hurry), it is getting late.
  • The garden is coming along (growing) nicely.
  • He came at (attacked) with a sharp weapon.
  • The handle of the umbrella came away (became detached)
  • Jobs are difficult to come by (to obtain).
  • My father came down generously (made a generous gift of money).
  • The roof came down (collapsed) suddenly.
  • The prices of commodities came down (decreased)after the budget.
  • He came down with (paid) my dues.
  • None came forward (supported) to stand witness.
  • He came in for (received) punishment for his conduct.
  • He comes of (is descended from) a good family.
  • Nothing came of his proposal (it led to no result).
  • The ceremony comes off (takes place) tomorrow.
  • He came off (fared) victorious.
  • A button has come off (detached from)the coat.
  • Come on! Let us join the race.
  • The secret came out (became exposed) at last.
  • They have come over to (changed sides) Our side.
  • He came round (recovered) very soon.
  • He has come round to my opinion (changed views).
  • Won’t you come round (revisit) and see me sometime?
  • His monthly expenses come to (achieved) a high figure.
  • We have not yet come to any conclusion.
  • He fainted but soon came to (recovered) consciousness.
  • The message has just come through (arrived).
  • Came upon (met by chance) my friend at the hotel.
  • The enemy came upon (to attack) us from behind.
  • Your essay does not come up to (is not equal to) expectation.
  • I gave the chase and soon came up with ( got hold of) the thief.
Phrasal verbs With Cry

  • Do not cry down (decry, underestimate) your enemy.
  • I planned to take part in the tournament but cried off (abandoned) at the last moment.
  • The beggars cried to (begged) the rich man for food.
  • A trader cries up (extols) his own goods.
Phrasal verbs With Cut

  • He cut down the tree with an axe.
  • Cut down (control or curb) your expenses.
  • He cut in (to take part suddenly) in the middle of our talk.
  • He lives in a foreign country, cut off (separated) from his kith and kin.
  • He was cut off (died) at an early age.
  • One of the aircraft’s engines cut out (stopped functioning).
  • He is cut out (suitable) for this job.
  • I cut him out (defeated) in the competition.
  • He was cut up (grieved) by your criticism.
Phrasal verbs With Die

  • The wind has died down (slowly disappear).
  • Suresh did not bend in front of the temple as he thought the custom was died out (become out of use) long ago.
Phrasal verbs With Dispose

  • She has deiced to dispose of (sell off) her mother’s old home.
  • My friend is dispose to (inclined) share all his experience with us.
Phrasal verbs With Do
  • They have done away with (abolished) that rule.
  • This plank will do for (serve as) a table.
  • His plan for the project is done for (ruined).
  • I am done for/on (put on) your coat.
  • I am quite done up (fatigued) with the journey.
  • Who is to do up (arrange) your room every day?
  • What will you do with (what use will you make of }this bundle?
  • A politician has to do with (deal with) all sorts of people.
  • Please return the book when done with (finished).
Phrasal verbs With Fall

  • He has much fallen away (become lean) since I saw him last.
  • His friends fell away (left him) in his misfortune.
  • They fell back (retreated) under the charge.
  • We fell back upon (had recourse to) a new line of defense.
  • He falls for (yields to charms) every pretty face he sees.
  • The roof fell in (gave way).
  • The captain ordered his men to fall in (to take places in the ranks).
  • I fell in with (met by chance) him on my way to Bombay.
  • I cannot fall in with (agree with or to) your views.
  • The quality of Dacca muslin has much fallen off (decreased).
  • False friends fall off (drop off) in misfortune.
  • He fell on (attacked) me without any reason.
  • The charge of the family fell on (became responsibility) me after my father’s death.
  • The brothers fell out (quarreled) over their father’s property.
  • The scheme fell through (failed ) for want of funds.
  • They fell to (began eagerly) eating.
Phrasal verbs With Get

  • I am too ill to get about (come out of doors).
  • A rumour got about (spread) that he was ill.
  • The secret got abroad (became public).
  • He has got ahead (surpassed) of all other boys in the class.
  • How are you getting along or on (doing, progressing) at school?
  • How can I get along (manage to do) without money?
  • He gets along well with his colleagues (maintains good relationship).
  • We could not get at (reach) the truth.
  • What are you getting at (suggest)?
  • The prisoner got away (escaped) from the jail.
  • The boy got beyond (out of reach) his depth and was drowned.
  • The mishap got him down (depressed).
  • Please get down (write) his address.
  • Let us get down to (to involve in or start or join) our job.
  • What time did the train get in (arrive)?
  • The rain can get in (enter) through the broken window pane.
  • We have a long waiting list, I don’t think your son will get in (admitted) this year.
  • He got into (get entangled) trouble there. In the hostel, he got into bad habits.
  • What has got into (happened) you today?
  • He got off the car.
  • He got off (escaped) unharmed.
  • We got off (started) immediately after lunch.
  • His youth and inexperience got him off (saved him from punishment).
  • You are lucky that you got off with only a fine.
  • How is he getting on (doing, progressing) at school?
  • I cannot get on with (to stay on flow) him.
  • Get out of the room.
  • The secret will soon get out (become public).
  • He got over (overcame) the difficulties.
  • It will take five hours to get through (finish) the work.
  • I hope to get through (succeed in) the examination.
  • He has not yet got through (recovered from) his illness.
  • Get up at five.
  • An agitation was got up (stirred up) against the bill.
  • Get up (prepare) your lessons carefully.
  • He was fined for getting up (producing) false evidence.
  • The get up (binding, printing, etc.) of the book is excellent.
Phrasal verbs With Give

  • He has given away ( to donate) his all in charity.
  • The president gave away (presented or distributed)the prizes.
  • At first, I opposed the proposal, but at last, gave in (surrendered).
  • He has given in (tendered) his resignation.
  • This flower gives off or forth (emits) a sweet smell.
  • He gave out (declared) that he was ill.
  • My patience gave out (exhausted) at last.
  • They were given over (handed over) to the enemy.
  • He gave over (hand over to transfer the charge) the charge to me.
  • Give up (to stop doing something) this bad habit.
  • I tried hard but ultimately I had to give up (abandon).
Phrasal verbs With Go

  • I am too weak to go about (move about).
  • Go about (do) your business.
  • A strong rumour is going about (is in your circulation) that he will leave us shortly.
  • He went abroad (away from home, especially to a foreign country) five years ago.
  • The dog went after (followed or chased) the hare.
  • I cannot go against your will.
  • All arrangements are going ahead (making progress) to celebrate the occasion.
  • As you go along (remain involved), you will find the job interesting.
  • It is difficult to go along with (agree) you on this point.
  • Don’t go aside (deviate) from the path of virtue.
  • The two brothers go at (attack) each other at the slightest provocation.
  • They are going at it (making the best possible effort) for all they are worth.
  • He has gone away (left) from here for good.
  • I cannot go back upon or from (fail to keep) my word.
  • The boy went beyond (exceeded) his depth and was drowned.
  • He goes by (is known by) a false name here.
  • He talked of days gone by (past).
  • It is a good rule to go by (to be guided by).
  • The price of butter has gone down (decreased).
  • Netaji will go down (remembered) in Indian history as a great patriot.
  • He has gone down with a fever.
  • He goes here for (is regarded as) a scholar.
  • Shall I go for (fetch) a doctor?
  • The people went forth to welcome the leader.
  • A rumour went forth (became public) that the prince was dead.
  • My supporters will go in for (favour, support) the abolition of that rule.
  • I shall go in for the law (become a lawyer).
  • The party went off well (passed, finished).
  • The pistol went off (was discharged) suddenly.
  • Go on (continue) with your work.
  • He went over (changed sides) to the enemy.
  • Please go over (examine)the accounts.
  • I went through (experienced) great sufferings.
  • I have gone through (to read) the book.
  • I heard that the proposal went through (was accepted) without any opposition.
  • The cost of living has gone up (Increased).
  • The whole mine went up in (burned) flames.
  • He does not go upon (follow) any fixed principles.
  • I go with (agree with) you in this matter.
Phrasal verbs With Hang

  • Why is he hanging around (move suspiciously) the area?
  • Ramesh is hanging back (hesitate) while all are advancing.
  • He hung down his head (bow head) with shame.
  • Do not like to hang on (depend on) others for my bread.
  • Would you hang on (wait) a minute, please?
  • People hung out (displayed) flags to welcome the President.
  • The debate has been hung over (postponed).
  • Hang up (suspend, zams) this picture in my work.
  • The crowd hung upon (listened attentively to) the speaker’s words.
Phrasal verbs With Hold

  • Do not hold back (conceal, hide) anything from me.
  • When others are moving on, I cannot hold back (lag behind).
  • Only he held by (adhered to) me in my danger.
  • Hold in (check) your temper.
  • You should hold off (keep aloof) from such agitation.
  • He held on (stuck to) his course through all opposition.
  • He held out (extended) his hand (or, great hopes) to me.
  • The rebels held out (resisted) for months.
  • The ration will not hold out (last) for more than a week.
  • The debate has been held over (postponed).
  • Do you still hold to (stick to) your plan?
  • The brothers held together (stay together)for a long time.
  • Hold up (keep up) your spirits for a few days more.
  • She was held up (exhibited) before us as an example.
  • All traffic was held up (stopped) for one hour.
  • The dacoits held up (threatened to rob) the passengers at gunpoint.
  • I hold with (agree) Jou in this matter.
Phrasal verbs With Keep

  • Fire keeps away or off wild animals.
  • Keep away or off from an evil company.
  • He is too fickle to keep at (stick to) anything.
  • I never kept back (concealed) anything from you.
  • He failed to keep down (control) his anger.
  • You must keep from (aloof from) such friends.
  • It’s wise to keep in (stay indoors) while it rains.
  • I cannot keep in (continue to agree) with you any longer.
  • He kept on (continued) ringing the bell.
  • I was kept out (kept away) of the business.
  • Keep to (stick to) your promise.
  • I shall keep up (maintain) the prestige of my family.
  • He kept up (remained awake) the whole night.
  • Keep up your spirits despite all hazards.
  • Try to keep up with (keep pace with) the class.
Phrasal verbs With Lay

  • He began to lay about him (deal blows) in anger.
  • Lay aside (cast aside) your formality.
  • Lay aside (reserve) something for old age.
  • Lay by (store up for future use) something for coming days.
  • No such rules are laid down (written) in the book.
  • The king laid down (gave up) the burden of State.
  • He laid down (sacrificed) his life for the country.
  • He laid out (expended) his all in business.
Phrasal verbs With Look

  • He is looking about for (searching for) a house.
  • He will look after my boy (take care).
  • Don’t look down upon (deride) the poor.
  • I looked for (expected) better treatment from you.
  • Look for (search for) the letter in the box.
  • We look forward to (expect with pleasure) his visit.
  • I shall look in (pay a short visit) when pass by his house.
  • I shall look into (enquire into) the matter.
  • I look on or upon (regard) you as my best friend.
  • The captain ordered the men to look out (be on the watch).
  • The eagle is looking out for (on the watch for) prey.
  • Please look over (examine) the applications.
  • I have looked through (examined carefully) the book.
  • Look (attend) to your own affairs.
  • I look to (rely on) you for help.
  • Prices of all things are looking up (rising) every day.
  • Please look me up (visit) on your way to the station.
  • Look up (find out) the word in the dictionary.
  • After a dull period, the business is looking up (improving) now.
  • Look up to (respect) him as my elder brother.
Phrasal verbs With Make

  • The dog made after (pursued) the hare.
  • He made away with (destroyed) his own life.
  • The ship made for (moved towards) the port.
  • Regular habits make for (contribute to) good health.
  • What do you make of (understand) the letter?
  • This table is made of (composed of) teak wood.
  • The man made off (ran away) with my bag.
  • I cannot make out (understand) what you say.
  • Make out (prepare) a list of your books.
  • He made over (delivered) charge to me.
  • Two boys are still wanting to make up (complete) the required number.
  • I shall make up (compensate) my loss in six months.
  • We made up (composed) our quarrel.
  • He has not yet made up (decided) his mind.
  • Nothing can make up for (compensate for) the loss of health.
Phrasal verbs With Pass

  • The clouds have passed away (gone).
  • He passed away (died) at night.
  • The train has passed by.
  • He passed by (ignored) my faults.
  • He passed for (was regarded as) a rich man there.
  • The rain passed off (ceased gradually).
  • He was punished for trying to pass off (deceive with) false coins.
  • Let us pass on (proceed) to another subject.
  • The ceremony passed off well (was a success).
  • My claim was passed over (neglected).
  • He passed through the crowd safely.
  • He passed through (Experienced) great hardships in life.
Phrasal verbs With Pull

  • The laborers are pulling at (trying to remove) the heavy machine.
  • Failing to yield me, they started pulling me apart (criticize unfavourably).
  • We decided to pull down (demolish) the old building.
  • He looks much pulled down (lowered in health or spirits).
  • He is pulling in (earning) a lot of money.
  • He was pulled in (detained, arrested) by police for questioning.
  • The train pulled in (entered the platform) on time.
  • The children pulled off (removed) the cover as soon as the packet was presented to them.
  • Our team pulled off (achieve) a brilliant victory.
  • The train pulled out (left) of the station.
  • He was pulled out of (get rid of) the difficult situation.
  • He is in great difficulties but he will pull through (overcome) if we offer him a little help.
  • He was critically ill but has pulled through (recovered ).
  • They are pulling together (work in harmony) nicely.
  • I pulled up (stopped) the car as the traffic police showed his hands.
  • He was pulled up (reprimanded) for his poor performance.
  • Initially, he was trailing but soon he pulled up with others (improved relatively).
Phrasal verbs With Put

  • He failed to put across (communicate successfully) his ideas to the committee.
  • You should put aside (save) sufficient money for your daughter’s marriage.
  • Put aside your work and listen to me.
  • Put away (lay aside) enough money for the old age.
  • Put back (restore) the book in its proper place.
  • Put by (lay aside) something for future days.
  • The rebellion was put down (suppressed) with a high hand.
  • Put down (write) your name on this paper.
  • He put forth (exerted) all his energy in the task.
  • Trees put forth (germinates) new leaves in spring.
  • The members put forward (preferred) a suggestion for consideration.
  • Dr. Chowdhury put forward (advanced) a new theory on solar energy.
  • I have put in (submitted) my claim.
  • He has put in ten years’ service.
  • Don’t put off (postpone) the meeting.
  • Put off (remove) your shoes.
  • Put on (wear) your clothes.
  • Put out (extinguish) the lamp.
  • Put up (raise) a fence around your home.
  • I can not Put up with (tolerate) this rudeness.
Phrasal verbs With Run

  • The children started to run about (in hurry) from one place to another in great panic.
  • I ran across (met by chance) my old friend in the street after a lapse of twenty years.
  • They all ran after the thief (pursued).
  • Do not run after money always.
  • He is running against (fighting) heavy odds.
  • The dog ran at (attacked) the hare.
  • His son ran away (left home) and joined the army.
  • My servant ran away with my watch.
  • They had a run away (easy) victory in the match.
  • The hunters ran down (chased) the fox.
  • He looks much run down (exhausted through excessive labour).
  • The motorist was run down by the lorry.
  • The battery has run down (exhausted).
  • He ran into danger (or debt) for his rashness.
  • The bus bus ran into (collide with) the railing.
  • The publication has run into ten editions.
  • I ran into (met unexpectedly) an old friend in the football ground.
  • The thief saw me and ran off (fled).
  • Our discussion ran on (continued) for hours together.
  • The engine runs on diesel oil.
  • Water ran out of the tank.
  • The garrison did not surrender until provisions ran out (were exhausted).
  • A dog was run over by a tram car.
  • The water of the river ran over (overflowed) its banks.
  • He ran over (glanced over hastily) my petition.
  • He ran through (pierced) the boar with a spear.
  • I ran through (examine quickly) the book in an hour.
  • He has run through (used up) his whole fortune.
  • The money required for the project will run to (amount to) a few lacs of rupees.
  • The price of petrol ran up (increased) to Rs.16.00 a litre.
  • The cyclist ran upon (collided with) the lamp post.
  • I ran upon (be engrossed with) a new idea to solve the problem.
Phrasal verbs With Set

  • Set about (begin) your task without delay.
  • The High Court set aside (canceled) the judgment of the lower court.
  • He set aside or apart some money for me.
  • The judge set down (recorded) my objection.
  • He set forth (exhibited) his views in a book.
  • He set forth (started) on his journey.
  • The rain set in (began).
  • He set off (started) for Bombay.
  • The gains were set off (balanced) against losses.
  • He set his dog on me (aATa 7a).
  • He has set out (started) for England.
  • Let us set to (begin) work at once.
  • They set him up (presented) as their candidate.
Phrasal verbs With Stand

  • Do not stand against (oppose) the force of time.
  • Please stand aside (move) to let the women pass.
  • He stood aside (to withdraw) from the contest.
  • The total contribution so far stands at (sums up) rupees ten thousand.
  • The chief stood by (supported) the king.
  • The army is standing by (to be ready)to support the civil authorities.
  • The letter “X” stands for (symbolises) ten.
  • Dipu has been asked to stand in (substitute) for him.
  • I stood off (being away) from the quarrel.
  • He stood out (be conspicuous) from the rest because of his height and dignified appearance.
Phrasal verbs With Take

  • I was taken aback (surprised) at this news.
  • The child takes after (resembles) its father Do not take away (remove) books from the shelf.
  • I cannot take back (withdraw) my words.
  • Take down (a record) the notes.
  • Take down the book from the shelf.
  • I took him for (regarded as) a doctor.
  • This wi take from (lower) your reputation as a sensible man He has taken in (enclosed) this plot of land for a garden.
  • I was taken in (cheated) by the grocer.
  • Can not take in (understand) the meaning of the passage.
  • We shall take in (admit) fifty boys this time.
  • Before selecting him, his health has to be taken into consideration.
  • Take off (remove) your coat. 
  • The plane took off at 7a.m.
  • Take your hands off my shoulder.
  • The morning bus service will be taken off (withdrawn) the route next week.
  • I decided to take on (undertake) the extra job.
  • I shall take you on at table tennis (accept as an opponent). 
  • He will take over (accept) charges tomorrow.
  • He has taken to (habituated himself to) gambling.
  • He took up (adopted) my cause. “He took up a pen and began to write.” This cot takes up (occupies) too much space.
Phrasal verbs With Turn

  • You can’t just turn around (be duplicitous) and say that it was all my fault.
  • The director has really turned the company around.(reverse a situation or trend)
  • I do not know why he turned against (became hostile) me.
  • The sight pained me and I turned away (to look the other side/divert the mind).
  • Turn away (dismiss) the idea from your mind.
  • Don’t turn back (reject) a beggar from your door.
  • He turned down (rejected) my proposal.
  • I turned in (went to bed) early last night.
  • We saw a hut and turned in (entered in passing) for shelter there.
  • Turn off the switch.
  • Turn on the switch.
  • The case turns on (depends on) his report.
  • The boy was turned out (thrown out) for misconduct.
  • Your report turned out (proved) to be true.
  • The people turned out (assembled) in large numbers to see the sight.
  • The mill turns out (produces) 800 pairs of cloth every day.
  • He did not turn up in time (appear)
Phrasal verbs With Work

  • Please try to work in (introduce) a few more illustrations on the subject.
  • You must work off (dispose of) the accumulated work.
  • Unless you work off (get rid of) your excess fat, you will fall ill.
  • He is working on a new scheme.
  • They worked on (continued to work) till sunset.
  • Work out (solve) this sum.
  • I have worked out (calculate) your share at Rs. 150.00.
  • The engineers have worked out a method by which construction costs would be reduced.


Most Important Phrasal Verbs for SSC CGL tier 1 and tier 2

Here we are providing the most common and most important Phrasal verbs for SSC CGL, SSC CHSL in pdf format.



You can also download the phrasal verbs list with meaning and example pdf by using PDF option at the bottom of the article.

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The post Important Phrasal Verbs With Meaning for Competitive Exams appeared first on TextBooq.

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Why is National Unemployment Day Trending on Twitter? https://www.textbooq.in/2020/09/why-is-national-unemployment-day-trending-on-twitter.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=why-is-national-unemployment-day-trending-on-twitter https://www.textbooq.in/2020/09/why-is-national-unemployment-day-trending-on-twitter.html#respond Thu, 17 Sep 2020 10:05:10 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1573 National Unemployment Day: Twitter is celebrating the birthday (17th September) of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi as National Unemployment Day. It is a part of the employment movement which started a month ago due to the central government’s reluctant approach towards Railway and SSC job seekers. Railway Recruitment Board and […]

The post Why is National Unemployment Day Trending on Twitter? appeared first on TextBooq.


National Unemployment Day: Twitter is celebrating the birthday (17th September) of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi as National Unemployment Day. It is a part of the employment movement which started a month ago due to the central government’s reluctant approach towards Railway and SSC job seekers.

Why is National Unemployment Day Trending on Twitter?

Railway Recruitment Board and Staff Selection Commission in India are the key recruitment agencies that provide government jobs to the youth generation in the country. Students prepare for years after their graduation or 10+2 to get a government job in India. But since Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of India in 2014, the recruitment process became slow and now is at a standstill condition. Jobseekers even need to push the RRB and SSC by various social media campaigns to publish a notice for the upcoming events.

Recently #SpeakUpForSSCRailway student, #Speakup, #NojobNovote, #SSCreforms, #Remember17Sept are trending over twitter. It is nothing but the anger and frustration of government job aspirants in India.Railway Recruitment Board (RRB) released a job notification of 90000 vacancy for RRB NTPC and RRB group D posts on 1st March,2019. Total 2.86 crore students applied against the job vacancies. Indian Railways Collected 864 Crores from the application fees of RRB NTPC and RRB Group D posts. Still, the tier 1 examination is pending.This approach by Narendra Modi led government infuriated the jobseekers across the country.

Twitteraties are demanding the reform on major recruitment processes including SSC and RRB. They are demanding to complete the whole recruitment cycle to finish with a year, starting from the date of notification.

SSC Reforms

SSC Reforms


Concerns of Unemployment in India

National Sample Survey Office published a report as a periodic labour force survey (PLFS), which revealed that the unemployment rate in India stood at a 45-year high of 6.1%.

It is to be noted that the acting chairman of the National Statistical Commission resigned, as the central government had not released the actual data in spite of the commission’s approval.
Look at the data
The percentage of unemployed rural male youth (aged 15-29) increased from 5% in 2011-12 to 17.4% in 2017-18. And the unemployment rate among rural women in the same age group increased from 4.8% in 2011-12 to 13.6% in 2017-18

So it was a crystal clear alarm that was suppressed and no mainstream media covered the serious issue of Unemployment in India.

Causes of Critical Stage of Unemployment in India

Back to back wrong implementation of government policies and corruption unveiled such a critical stage. The outbreak of COVID-19 was the last nail in the coffin.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi started to take aback the entire nation since demonetization was announced. After that the implementation of GST caused a seismic wave in the entire nation as the small and medium scale industries burned with higher tax rates.

Do You Know?
A survey was conducted by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy which cited that 1.5 million jobs were lost just after the first four months of 2017, the immediate impact of demonetization.

Must Read Indian Economy in 2020 and Uncertain Future of Indian Youth

Why is Narendra Modi’s Birthday Trending as National Unemployment Day?

Jobseekers are demanding regular and transparent recruitment agencies which are capable to conduct exams in a fast and time-bound way. SSC candidates are asking for waiting list provisions as the same candidates keep on appearing SSC exams pursuing his/her dream post, resulting in wastage of posts every year. In spite of trending demands on twitter, it is extremely shocking that prime minister Narendra Modi did not even acknowledge or address the unemployment issue in the country.

As a result jobseekers across the country are blaming prime minister Narendra Modi for their distress and poor economic condition. That is why Indian Youth is celebrating the birthday of PM Narendra Modi i.e.17th September as the National Unemployment Day. Students, teachers around the country have taken part for the mass twitter campaign. Here are some tweets advocating the need of urgent initiative to address unemployment issue.

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

# National Unemployment Day

It is to be noted that the Indian Economy contracted by 23.9% in the first Quarter of 2020-21. The reasons are obviously COVID-19 lockdown and unsuitable timing of implementation of policies one after another by Indian government.

Sectors like Construction, manufacturing, tourism and transport are among the worst-hit sectors. Collection of tax revenues have contracted by 42% in the April-July period. Informal sectors are completely excluded in the figure,if included, the contraction figure could be uglier.

It is urged to prime minister Narendra Modi to take some immediate steps to acknowledge and solve the unemployment issue in the country.

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Prospects of Nuclear Energy of India https://www.textbooq.in/2020/09/prospects-of-nuclear-energy-of-india.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=prospects-of-nuclear-energy-of-india https://www.textbooq.in/2020/09/prospects-of-nuclear-energy-of-india.html#respond Fri, 11 Sep 2020 04:46:07 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1516 Prospects of Nuclear Energy of India: India’s energy poverty still remains an uphill task to tackle.The challenge for India is to maintain a balance in between use of Nuclear Energy in country’s development as well as weaponisation of the Nuclear Energy to counter the aggression of hostile neighbors.In this article we […]

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Prospects of Nuclear Energy of IndiaIndia’s energy poverty still remains an uphill task to tackle.The challenge for India is to maintain a balance in between use of Nuclear Energy in country’s development as well as weaponisation of the Nuclear Energy to counter the aggression of hostile neighbors.In this article we will discuss every single details of various Prospects of Nuclear Energy of India for UPSC examination.

Let’s learn.

Prospects of Nuclear Energy of India

Before we jump into our discussion let’s talk about Julius Robert Oppenheimer.

Julius Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer

Who is Julius Robert Oppenheimer?
Julius Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist at the University of California. Oppenheimer is considered as the “Father of the atomic bomb” for their role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II,that developed the first nuclear weapon in the world.The first atomic bomb was successfully tested on July,1945, in the Trinity test in Mexico. Oppenheimer later said that the idea of Nuclear bomb was originated from the words from the Bhagavad Gita: “Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.” The Nuclear weapons were used in Hiroshima and Nagasaki In August 1945.

After the deadliest atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Julius Robert Oppenheimer said this

A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. 

—Julius Robert Oppenheimer

Development of Nuclear Energy in India
  • Jawaharlal Nehru advocated the nuclear energy in 1948 to the General Assembly of India.
  • The result was the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission and genesis of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE).
  • Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) developed the first operational research reactor in 1956
  • India’s first commercial reactor Tarapur Atomic Power Station, in 1969.
  • India faced hindrances in nuclear development in India in 1968.This was due to India’s decision to not ratify the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
  • Due to this barrier, India had to switch on domestic development for acquiring fuel, supplies and research an development.
  • India’s nuclear program was envisaged to build a connection between India’s military nuclear weapons program and the commercial atomic energy program.
  • India was dependent on international nuclear materials during 1970s and 1980s for its nuclear weapons tests. Canada had given India a CIRUS research reactor and a CANDU reactor which were delivered for peaceful purposes of electricity production, but instead, the reactors were utilized to produce weapons grade plutonium for nuclear weapons development. It was a violation of the treaty between India and Canada.
  • As a consequence,the United State passed the Symington amendment in 1976 to put sanctions in economic and military assistance to India.Which was then followed up by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, which cut off nuclear materials and fuel to India.
  • Later USA withdrew the said sanctions in 2001
  • Due to earlier trade bans and lack of indigenous uranium, India has uniquely been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
Nuclear Energy Policy of India
  • India has been continuously focused to explore the possibility of tapping nuclear energy for the power generation. Homi Jegangir Bhabha  pioneered three-stage nuclear power programme in the 1950s.
Homi Jehangir Bhabha

Homi Jehangir Bhabha is considered the original driver of India’s Nuclear Policy

Image Courtesy

Father of the Indian nuclear programme: Homi Jegangir Bhabha is referred as the ‘father of nuclear energy in India‘.Dr Homi J. Bhabha was born on 30 October 1909.He went to Cambridge University to study mechanical engineering.Homi J. Bhabha was elected a fellow of the Royal Society London at the age of 31.But he returned India due to  Second World War and  he joined the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore under Nobel laureate C.V. Raman. Homi J. Bhabha convinced PM Jawaharlal Nehru to set up the Atomic Energy Commission in 1948.He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1954 for his outstanding contributions to nuclear science.He was appointed the president of the United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva in Switzerland in 1955.After his death,Atomic Energy Establishment was renamed as the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).
  • Atomic Energy Act, 1962 was introduced with the set objectives of using two naturally occurring elements Uranium and Thorium having good potential to be utilized as nuclear fuel in Indian Nuclear Power Reactors.

What is Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)?

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was signed in 1968 and came into force in 1970.It was enacted to form a elite group of nuclear powered countries. NPT forces a country to permanently stop it's present or future plans to build nuclear weapons.
Do you Know?
India is one of the five countries that rejected NPT by any means. Rest countries which did not sign NPT are Pakistan, Israel, North Korea, and South Sudan.
  • India has conducted its first nuclear test in Pokharan in 1974 with the codename of “Smiling Buddha“.

What is Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)?

The NSG was created just after the India’s first nuclear test in 1974. The NSG was officially came into force in November 1975 in London, thus popularly known as the "London Club". It’s a group of nuclear supplier countries that asks to involve in the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. NSG consists of 48 members, including the five nuclear weapon states US, UK, France, China, and Russia.
Do you Know?
It is to be noted that a non-NPT country is ineligible to become a member of NSG. This clause has kept India out of the group.

What will India achieve as a member of NSG? 

  1. India will be able to develop its own resources for each stage of the nuclear fuel power generation, including next generation reactors such as fast breeder reactors and thorium breeder reactors etc.
  2. Membership of the NSG will ensure India a legal foundation for India’s nuclear regime and thus will pave a way to expand investment in nuclear energy across the country.
  3. Membership of NSG will strengthen India to keep its voluntary pledge under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for increasing production of clean energy through Nuclear power.

  • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) intends to ban all nuclear explosions – everywhere, by everyone. It opened for signature on 24 September 1996 and since then 182 countries have signed the Treaty.India did not sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

What is Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)?

The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is the treaty that restricts all nuclear tests everywhere, by everyone. The Treaty was first negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva and adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 24 September 1996. CTBT is aimed to curb the development of new nuclear weapons and also improvement of existing nuclear weapon designs. When a country accepts the Treaty,it gets a legal binding against nuclear testing.
Why did India reject CTBT?
  • India’s scientific strategist thinks that if CTBT is accepted,it would hinder India’s strategic nuclear program development
  • As far as security is concerned, India will pass through uncertain dangers from Pakistan, and China, which had conducted nuclear tests even while the CTBT was being negotiated.

  • Five nuclear tests were conducted as a part of the series of Pokhran-II in May 1998. These tests were performed under the Operation Shakti–98.
  • In 2003, India has adopted its Nuclear Doctrine of ‘No First Use‘ i.e. India will use nuclear weapons only in retaliation against a nuclear attack on its Territory.

What is Nuclear Doctrine of 'No First Use'?

A policy of No First Use (NFU) of nuclear weapons has special significance in India’s doctrine and diplomacy.It is a pledge that says India will not initiate a nuclear attack but with a significant caveat.It also cites that nuclear weapons could be used if Indian forces are attacked with biological or chemical weapons.
Do you Know?
According to a 2018 report published by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Pakistan has 140-150 nuclear warheads compared to India’s 130-140 warheads.

    What is Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)?

    Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is informal multilateral export control regime to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology. MTCR does not impose any legal obligations on member countries. The regime was formed in 1987 by the G-7 industrialized countries i.e Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the United States.
    Do you Know?
    There are currently 35 countries that are members of the MTCR. India has been included as the 35th full member MTCR In July 2016.
    • The membership of MTCR helps India to buy high-end missile technology, strengthen its export control regime and it supports India’s bid to become the member of Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG).

    Why is China blocking India's membership into NSG?

    Whenever India pushes for NSG's membership,China blocks. China blocks India citing that India has rejected to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which is considered as pre-requisite for its membership to the NSG. It should be noted that except China, all P5 members have advocated India’s membership of NSG based on India’s non-proliferation record.

    What is Wassenaar Agreement?

    Wassenaar Agreement was established in 1996. Wassenaar Agreement is a group of countries which take a pledge to controls arms export. It was formed to bring security and stability, by fostering transparent practices in the process of sale and transfer of arms and materials and technologies that can be used to make nuclear weapons. The group contains 42 countries. India joined the group on December 8, 2017. All permanent members of the U.N. Security Council and China are signatories of this arrangement.

    Timeline of Events

    • Atomic Energy Act, 1962 in India
    • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was signed in 1968
    • India has conducted its first nuclear test in Pokharan in 1974
    • Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) in 1975
    • Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) was formed in 1987
    • Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996
    • Wassenaar Agreement in 1996
    • Five nuclear tests were conducted as a part of the series of Pokhran-II in 1998 under the Operation Shakti–98.
    • India adopted its Nuclear Doctrine in 2003


    Although India is not a member of NPT and NSG, its importance is significant. Nuclear Supplier Group did grant a waiver to India in 2008 on the basis of its past performance allowing India as a member.
    Uses of Nuclear Energy
    • Supply of radioisotopes: Radioisotopes are used in household as smoke detectors.
    • Plant mutation breeding: It is a process of exposing the seeds to radiation to enhance production rate and curtail the time of production. 
    • Fertilizers in Agriculture: Isotope fertilizers like nitrogen-15, are expensive and may damage the environment if proper precautions are not taken.
    • Insect control:Radiation is used to control insect populations by the process of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)
    • Food irradiation: It is a process of exposing food materials to gamma rays to kill bacteria that can cause food-borne disease.
    • Carbon dating: Naturally-occurring radioisotopes are used in determining the age of rocks.
    • Desalination
    • Medicine and Diagnosis:Diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine use radio pharmaceuticals.
    • Nuclear-powered submarines
    • Nuclear reactors in space technology: Radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs) are widely used in various space missions.
    • Environmental tracers: Radioisotopes could be used in detecting and analyzing the presence and effects pollutants  
    Importance of Nuclear Energy in India

    Since the discovery of nuclear energy by USA, many countries were actively involved to acquire the nuclear technology to show dominance in global geo-political field.

    Here is the time line of invention of Nuclear Technology by different countries

    • U.S. conducted the Castle Bravo test with hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954,
    • Soviet Union tested its first nuclear bomb on 29 August 1949 in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.Code name was “First Lightning”
    • The United Kingdom became the third nation to acquire nuclear technology when it detonated an atomic bomb in Operation Hurricane.
    • France acquired nuclear weapons on February 13, 1960. A atomic bomb was tested in Algeria.
    • The People’s Republic of China became the fifth nuclear power in the world on October 16, 1964.

    The consecutive success of several countries had put pressure on India as well. As India always wanted to play a significant role in world Geo-politics.

    But India could not immediately put enough focus on developing nuclear technology just after the Independence, as India was immersed in deep poverty and illiteracy. India’s primary focus was development at that time.However Homi Jegangir Bhabha  the ‘Father of the Indian nuclear programme’ pioneered and helped India to show it’s supremacy in the world.

    The present scenario is changed.Now India is focused in development through Nuclear energy.Today the importance of Nuclear Energy is in different dimension as there are ever rising concerns for the ecosystem which eventually intensified the use sustainable energy through nuclear technology.

    Nuclear power must be used in full potential to meet rising electricity demand in the country. Rising fossil fuel prices, increasing pollution problems are pushing India to align for Nuclear technology in power generation.

    Do you Know?
    India delivers a total capacity of 6.7 GWe (Giga Watt Electricity)through Nuclear power. The contribution is about 2% of the country’s electricity supply.
    Advantages of Nuclear Energy in India
    • The nuclear energy is form of clean energy as it reduces the amount of energy generated from fossil fuels (coal and oil). Hence less use of fossil fuels also lowers less emissions greenhouse gases. Hence it will lead to cleaner and healthier environment in India.
    • Nuclear fuel offers more energy production. Nuclear plants significantly save not only raw materials but also in transport, handling and extraction of nuclear fuel.
    • A nuclear power plant can generate electricity with a consistency thus reducing the price volatility of other fuels such as petrol.Which is a primary concern among Indian consumers.
    It’s an alternative to fossil fuels.This reduction of coal and oil consumption improves the overall situation of global climate change.Nuclear energy will be reducing the consumption of fossil fuels hence it will foster in improving the quality of the air affecting the disease and quality of life.
    Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
    • Nuclear power plants need high level of sophistication and safety systems. Even a little negligence and poor maintenance may bring an unexpected event or a nuclear accident.Two vivid examples are Chernobyl and Fukushima.
    The Chernobyl nuclear accident is considered as the worst nuclear accident in the history that occurred on Saturday 26 April 1986, in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in Ukrainian SSR.
    Fukushima nuclear accident happened in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima,Japan.The accident was caused an earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011.
    • Difficulty in the management of nuclear waste as the nuclear wastes are hard to eliminate from its radioactivity and risks.
    • The nuclear reactors need to be dismantled after their expiry date. Hence a country will be able to keep producing nuclear energy only if there are sufficient number of operating reactors. India need to build about 80 new nuclear reactors during the next ten years.
    • Nuclear plants has very high initial and operating costs.
    • Nuclear power plants are always primary objectives of terrorist organizations. Hence these are always under strict surveillance and security.
    • Current nuclear reactors work by the principle of nuclear fission chain reactions. These chain reactions could be causing a very destruction radioactive explosion in case of control systems failure.
    • The use of Nuclear technology in military industry could erase the entire human race. We witnessed the heart melting consequences of the nuclear power during World War II. So far this was the only known nuclear military attack in the history.Later, many countries joined the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, but there remains a high probability of use of nuclear power in ongoing tensions across the globe.
    The Future of Nuclear Energy in India

    The Future of Nuclear Energy in India is entrapped within the issues related to the pre-project activities like land acquisition at new sites, clearances from environment ministry and finding proper and timely foreign investors.If the government do not address issues like these,India will never be able to attract suitable investors.

    Do you Know?
    In India, the nuclear power capacity addition is surprisingly slow,considering ever growing fossil fuel prices– only 10,00 MW was added during 2015-18.

    However the Indian government is eyeing to increase nuclear power generation capacity by over three times in coming 10 years. The current nuclear capacity of India is 6,780 MW which is proposed to be increased to 22,480 MW by 2031.

    As of January 2020, the installed nuclear power capacity is 6,780 megawatt (MW) which accounts for only 1.84 per cent of the total installed capacity of 3,68,690 MW.
    • Three mines in Jharkhand, Narwapahar, Turamdih and Banduhurang mines have been given in-principle approval to augment production capacity.
    • 12 more nuclear power reactors have been given administrative approval and financial sanction for installation.Thus, 21 nuclear power reactors, with an installed capacity of 15,700 MW, are under implementation which is expected to be completed by the year 2031.
    • 10 new Uranium projects were given in-principle approval from the Atomic Energy Commission.
    Proposed Nuclear Power Plants in India

    Proposed Nuclear Power Plants in India


    Active and Under Construction Nuclear Power Plants in India

    Active and Under Construction Nuclear Power Plants in India

    Nuclear Power Plant in India map

    Here are some key points India should focus on

    • India needs to support innovation in nuclear energy and invest in the development of it’s infrastructure. Most of the nuclear reactors in India are pale in comparison (in terms of technological advancement and safety from a potential reactor meltdown) with nuclear reactors in other countries like China, The Russian Federation and the USA.
    • India need to constantly innovate the infrastructure of nuclear energy.
    • India should focus in developing reactors of latest technology such as a molten-salt reactor, that utilizes thorium (such reactors have greater energy efficiency, hence producing less radioactive waste and thorium is way more abundant that in Earth’s crust than the traditionally used Uranium)
    • India need latest technological advancement to boost modular nuclear reactor projects, especially in the creation of nuclear reactors that are liquid based (which has the potential to increase the efficiency of the system), as well as investing in nuclear reactors which utilize solid fuel rods that operate in near atmospheric pressure and won’t cause a nuclear meltdown. 
    • India also need to invest in the creation of nuclear power plants which would operate through the principle of ‘nuclear fusion‘, rather that the traditional ‘nuclear fission‘.

    The relationship between energy consumption and human development is straight forward.Sustainable Development includes affordable, clean and reliable energy services to all.

    Do you Know?
    It is to be noted that the world’s poorest 4 billion people consume only 5% of the amount of energy enjoyed by those living in developed economies. 

    As far as environment is concerned the Nuclear energy could be the all in one solution. In a nut shell it can phrased that Nuclear Energy and Sustainable Development is interconnected.Nevertheless it is completely  political will and commitment of world leaders to give it a proper direction. World leaders should follow the translated idea of Homi J Bhabha, when he advocated the growth of the civilization through the increase in energy consumption and the development of new energy sources in the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva in August 1955.

    We must concentrate not merely on the negative expulsion of war, but on the positive affirmation of peace.

    Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Also Read List of Thermal,Nuclear and Hydroelectric Power Plants in India

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