TextBooq https://www.textbooq.in Success Simplified! Thu, 13 Aug 2020 02:00:09 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.5 https://secureservercdn.net/104.238.68.130/gjm.e72.myftpupload.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/cropped-Textbooq-favicon-1-32x32.png TextBooq https://www.textbooq.in 32 32 What is Indus Water Treaty? https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/what-is-indus-water-treaty.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=what-is-indus-water-treaty https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/what-is-indus-water-treaty.html#respond Wed, 12 Aug 2020 09:55:43 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1108 Indus Water Treaty is a water distribution treaty between India and Pakistan that was signed in 1960. Here we will learn all about Indus Water Treaty.Let’s learn. Image Source  It is a bilateral water distribution treaty between India and Pakistan. It was signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and […]

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Indus Water Treaty is a water distribution treaty between India and Pakistan that was signed in 1960. Here we will learn all about Indus Water Treaty.Let’s learn.

What is Indus Water Treaty

Image Source 

Indus Waters Treaty, 1960
  • It is a bilateral water distribution treaty between India and Pakistan.
  • It was signed between Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistani counterpart President Ayub Khan.
  • The treaty was brokered by the World Bank and it was signed in Karachi in 1960.

How Was the Water Distribution?
There are total six rivers flowing in Indus river basin. Three eastern flowing rivers i.e. the Beas, the Ravi and the Sutlej came under control of India and three western flowing rivers the Indus, the Chenab and the Jhelum was given to Pakistan.
The Indus river basin

The Indus river basin

  • In this treaty India was also allowed to use water of western flowing rivers for limited irrigation use and unrestricted use for power generation, domestic and industrial purposes.
  • Indus Water Treaty also empowered India to build  hydroelectric plants through the run of the river (RoR) projects on the above mentioned Western Rivers. The hydroelectric projects are subject to specific criteria for design and operation is unrestricted.

What is Run of the River (RoR) Projects?
Run of the river projects are the type of hydroelectric power projects where natural flow of river water and elevation drop of the river is used to generate electricity instead of artificially built dams and other construction.
  • The treaty instructed, the water commissioners from India and Pakistan, to meet twice a year along with a technical visits to on-going projects sites and critical river head works.
  • Permanent Indus Commission was formed under the treaty and the treaty framed a comprehensive mechanism for the cooperation and information exchange between the two countries regarding their use of the rivers waters under Permanent Indus Commission.
Indus Water Treaty (IWT) gives permission to India to use only 20 per cent of the total water carried by the Indus river.
Know the Recent Dispute

The recent dispute is triggered regarding the construction of the Kishanganga project on the Neelum river and Ratle run-of-the-river (RoR) Hydropower project on the Chenab river in Jammu and Kashmir.

Know About Kishanganga Hydroelectric Project


  • The project is under National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC)
  • It is a 330 MW project.
  • The project is on river Kishanganga river or Neelum river(The name of Kisanganga river in Pakistan) which is a tributary of Jhelum river.
  • It is located at North Bandipore in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The construction began in 2007.

Know About Ratle Hydroelectric Project


  • The project is under GVK Power and an independent power producer (IPP).
  • It is a 850 MW project.
  • The project is on Chenab River.
  • It is located at the Kishtwar District of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Construction started in 2013.
What is the Point of View of Pakistan?
  • Pakistan’s objection is involving Neelum-Jhelum project construction which would affect on downstream of the Kishanganga project in Pakistani territory. As Indus Water Treaty is giving them the exclusive right on Chenab and Jhelum river.
  • While Pakistan also questioned on the legal provision of the construction and operation of these Indian hydro-electric project.
  • Construction on the dam was temporarily paused by the order of the Hague’s Permanent Court of Arbitration (CoA) in October 2011 due to Pakistan’s protest against Kishanganga project.
While Pakistan had challenged the Kisanganga project citing the provisions of Indus Waters Treaty,1960.The International Court of Arbitration at the Hague ruled in India’s favour in 2013 but also asks India to maintain minimum water flow at the rate of 9 cubic meter/sec in Pakistan territory.
What is the Point of View of India?
  • India is positively focused on these hydroelectric power projects as Indus Water Treaty empowers India to build  hydroelectric plants through the run of the river (RoR) projects on the western flowing rivers Indus,Chenab and Jhelum.
  • The project will ensure that the Bandipora district will get 13% free power supply including 1% for local area development fund amounting to around Rs 133 crore per year.
  • The Kisanganga project involves diversion of water-flow into Jhelum river along with the water discharge at Wular lake which is a Ramsar site. Such diversion  of water flow will not affect the downstream flow of Jhelum river. Apart from the hydroelectric project, Kisanganga project will be beneficial for the Wular lake. The Wular lake is not only a rich bio-diverse Ramsar lake but also it promotes eco-tourism to boost the local economic activities.

Also Read

India said that it would review the treaty and linked it with the cross-border terrorism following the Uri attack in 2016 which killed 19 Indian soldiers. At that time Prime Minister Narendra Modi said “blood and water can not flow simultaneously”
Importance of the Indus Waters treaty for Pakistan
  • Indus, Chenab and Jhelum are the lifelines of Pakistan as the country is entirely dependent on these rivers for all agricultural and industrial works.
  • Pakistan fears the threat of drought and famine as Indus originates from China and Chenab and Jhelum originate from India. These rivers flow into Pakistan through India.
Role of World Bank
  • World Bank arranged a meeting in November,2019 in between Indian and Pakistani delegation through the appointment of a neutral expert.But  not positive solution came out.
  • India tried to solve the dispute by several meeting during 2016-17 mediated by World Bank. But the projects are still at a pause.

It should be noted that in Indus Water Treaty the World Bank functions as a broker only. World Bank has a procedural role and there is no provision for the World bank to take an independent decision in this issue.
Recent Developments

Recently India tabled a suggestion for discussion over pending issues of Indus Water Treaty. India wants this discussion at a virtual platform considering the rising COVID-19 pandemic cases across the country. But Pakistan is pushing for physical discussion at Attari Joint Check Post rejecting the proposal for video conference. Both the countries are far away from the diplomatic consensus over even a trivial issue on the mode of discussion.

Conclusion

Since the Inception of Indus Water Treaty in 1960, India and Pakistan are embroiled in prolonged negotiation over several including Salal hydroelectric project, Tulbul project, Kishenganga and Ratle hydroelectric plants.This dispute says a lot about poor water management and water scarcity in Indian sub-continent.Environmental degradation is primary reason behind conflicts over the water resources.

However, an amicable solution under a legal framework would be welcomed. Both the country should come out with a  bi-lateral consensus,going beyond the narrow political agendas for the overall natural,economical and political stability in the region.

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Important International Organisations for SSC,UPSC https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/important-international-organisations-for-sscupsc.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=important-international-organisations-for-sscupsc https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/important-international-organisations-for-sscupsc.html#respond Tue, 11 Aug 2020 09:31:25 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1066 Important International Organisations for SSC,UPSC: An international organization is an organization governed by international law, treaty or intergovernmental agreements between several countries. Here we will discuss the Important International Organisations for competitive exams like SSC,Railway,UPSC,state PSCs,IBPS etc.Let’s learn. International Financial Institutions Formation: 1944 Structure:World Bank Group comprises five institutions  International […]

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Important International Organisations for SSC,UPSC: An international organization is an organization governed by international law, treaty or intergovernmental agreements between several countries. Here we will discuss the Important International Organisations for competitive exams like SSC,Railway,UPSC,state PSCs,IBPS etc.Let’s learn.

Important International Organisations for SSC,UPSC

All the data are taken from the official websites of the concerned organisations or institutions as on August 2020.The president,CEO or Director general of the organisations or institutions are subjected to change at a later time.

International Financial Institutions


World Bank Group

Formation: 1944

Structure:World Bank Group comprises five institutions 

  • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is involved in disbursing loans, credits, and grants.
  • International Development Association (IDA) provides low interest or no-interest loans to underdeveloped countries.
  • The International Finance Corporation (IFC) deals with the investment, advice and asset management to international companies and country governments.
  • The Multilateral Guarantee Agency (MIGA) provides insurance to lenders and investors against political risk,war, terrorism,civil disturbance etc.
  • The International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) provides solutions to the  investment-disputes between international investors and countries.

Objectives:

  • World Bank works on reduction of poverty at global scale.
  • It promotes capital programmes in developing countries.
  • Strengthens the governments in delivering quality services with greater efficiency and transparency.
  • World bank focuses on social development, gover­nance, basic health and education, projects of international importance.

Head Quarter: Washington DC,USA

President:  David R. Malpass

Is India a Member? Yes

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Formation: 1944

Structure:

IMF board of governors are advised two ministerial committees

  • The International Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC)
  • The Development Committee

Objectives:

  • Promotes global monetary cooperation
  • Secure financial stability to member country governments.
  • Facilitate international trade.
  • Promote high employment and sustainable economic growth.
  • Monitors the economic and financial policies of the member countries.

What is Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)?

  • SDR is the IMF’s unit of account. It is not a currency.
  • The currency value of the SDR is determined by the values in U.S. Dollars based on market exchange rates of a SDR basket of concerned currencies.
  • SDR basket of currencies includes the currencies like U.S. Dollar, Japanese yen, Euro, pound sterling and the Chinese currency renminbi.
  • The currency value of SDR is on calculated daily basis.

Head Quarter: Washington DC,USA

Managing Director: Kristalina Georgieva

Is India a Member? Yes

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
undertook significant initiatives during Global Economic Crisis in 2008 to strengthen prompt surveillance to respond to a more globalized and interconnected world.
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)

Formation: 2015 through ‘AIIB Articles of Agreement’

Structure:

  • Membership in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank is open to all members of the World Bank Group or the Asian Development Bank and is further divided into regional and non-regional members.
  • China is the largest shareholder in AIIB with 26.61 % voting shares which is  followed by India (7.6%), Russia (6.01%) and Germany (4.2 %).

Objectives:

  • The creation of the AIIB is primarily focused on countering dominance of WB or IMF.
  • To foster sustainable economic development and creation of wealth by improving infrastructure connectivity in Asia.
  • AIIB promotes the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) initiative of China.
  • Promotion of regional trade and investment relations in Asian continent.

Head Quarter: Beijing,China

President and Chairman of the Board of Directors: Jin Liqun

Is India a Member? Yes

Asian Development Bank

Formation: 1966

Structure: Japan is one of the largest shareholders of the bank, the president has always been Japanese.

Largest Shareholders in ADB: Japan and the United States (each with 15.6% of total shares), the People’s Republic of China (6.4%), India (6.3%), and Australia (5.8%).

Objectives:

  • ADB is focused in achieving a prosperous, inclusive, resilient,sustainable economic growth in Asian Region.
  • The ADB provides hard loans on commercial terms mainly to middle income countries in Asia.
  • The ADB provides soft loans to the poorer countries in the Asian region.
What is 'Hard Loan' and 'Soft Loan'?
A hard loan must be repaid in the currency which has political stability and reputation and a soft loan is a loan with a lower interest rate than existing market rate.

Head Quarter: Manila, Philippines.

President: Masatsugu Asakawa

India a Member? Yes

New Development Bank

Formation: New Development Bank (NDB) was established as the BRICS Development Bank in 2014

Structure: Former chairman of Infosys Limited K. V. Kamath from India, was the first elected president of the New Development Bank. He was replaced by Marcos Prado Troyjo from Brazil since 7 July 2020.

According to Articles of Agreement of the New Development Bank, the initial authorized capital of the bank is divided into Brazil,Russia,India,China,South Africa and countries enjoy 20% of shareholding and voting rights individually.

Objectives:

  • New Development Bank promotes infrastructure and sustainable development projects in member countries.
  • New Development Bank is focused in establishment of an extensive network of global partnerships with other multilateral development institutions.

Head Quarter: Shanghai, China.

Director General: Marcos Prado Troyjo

India a Member? Yes

United Nations Organisations


United Nations

Formation:24 October 1945,this day is celebrated as United Nations Day

Objectives:

United Nations has many specialized agency for different purposes to deal with. The overall organization’s objectives include

  • Maintaining international peace and security at global scale.
  • Protecting human rights and delivering humanitarian assistance.
  • Promoting economic and sustainable development.
  • Upholding international law.
  • Look into environmental issues around the globe. 

Head Quarter: New York City,USA

Secretary General: António Guterres

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) which seeks achieve global peace through international cooperation in Education, the Sciences and Culture.

Formation: 1945

Objectives:

  • Focused on quality education for all at global scale.
  • UNESCO promotes cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue.
  • UNESCO promotes inclusive knowledge within societies through information and communication and addresses emerging social and ethical challenges.
  • Global priority areas of UNESCO- “Africa” and “Gender Equality”.

Head Quarter: Paris,France

Director General: Audrey Azoulay

UNICEF

Formation: The institution was formed in 1946 as International Children’s Emergency Fund (ICEF) 

Objectives: UNICEF is governed by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989.

Basic objectives are

  • Child Development and Nutrition and Child Protection
  • Inclusive education of Children
  • Polio Eradication
  • Reproductive and Child Health including combating diseases like AIDS
  • Behaviour Change Communication;

Head Quarter: New York,USA

Executive General: Henrietta Holsman Fore

UNICEF started its work in India in 1949 and presently works with Ministry of Women and Child Development.
Do You Know?
UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1965 for “promotion of brotherhood among the nations”.
United Nations Development Programme(UNDP)

It is United Nations’ global development network.

Formation: 1965

Objectives:

  • Poverty reduction at global scale.
  • Crisis prevention and recovery in case of a crisis like armed conflict or a natural disaster.
  • UNDP works with country governments to strengthen their capacity to address global environmental issues by providing innovative policy.
  • Prevention of HIV/AIDS.

Head Quarter: New York,USA

Director General: Achim Steiner

World Health Organization(WHO)

World Health Organization (WHO) is focused on public health at global scale.

Formation: April 7,1948. 7th April of every year is celebrated as World Health Day.

Objectives:

  • Addressing communicable and non-communicable diseases.
  • Works on Pollution related diseases through international health network.
  • Promotes cooperation among scientific and professional groups in health related research and innovation.
  • WHO addresses health policy of various governments.
  • Encourages public health education and awareness campaigns.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Tedros Adhanom

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Formation: 1919

Objectives:

  • Promotes the standards and fundamental principles and rights at work.
  • To create greater opportunities to secure decent employment.
  • Works to ensure the maximum coverage and effective social protection for all.
  • Working to end the menace of child labour.
  • Addresses unfair discrimination among workers.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Guy Ryder

Do You Know?
ILO was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1969.
India is a founding member of the International Labour Organization. India has been a permanent member of the ILO Governing Body since 1922.
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)

FAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations which leads international efforts to combat hunger and improve nutrition and food security at global scale.

Formation:1945

Objectives:

  • Right to Food Guidelines were adopted by FAO.
  • Provides a Comprehensive Framework for Action to combat hunger issues specially in underdeveloped countries through Food security programmes.
  •  Protection of plants by International Plant Protection Convention.
  • Promotion of Integrated pest management programme.
  • FAO is also involved in sustainable management in forestry and fisheries in its member states.

Head Quarter: Rome,Italy

Director General: Qu Dongyu

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Formation:26th April,1967, this day is celebrated as World Intellectual Property Day 

Objectives:

  • To provide a resilient global services to protect Intellectual Property across the globe and to assist and resolve disputes.
  • To develop a technical infrastructure to connect Intellectual Property systems and share knowledge around the world with authentic source of information.
  • Cooperation and capacity-building programs to make people aware about Intellectual Property for inclusive economic, social and cultural development.

What is Intellectual Property?
Intellectual Property is a tangible property which includes human intellectual works like copyrights,trademarks,patents,moral right,publicity rights etc.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Francis Gurry

Is India a member? India joined WIPO in 1975.

WIPO releases Global Innovation Index in a joint collboration with with Cornell University and INSEAD to rank countries according to their capacity,growth in innovation.

United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

Formation:1974

Objectives:

  • Promotes of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
  • Fosters tourism education and training through technical assistance projects.
  • To protect human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.

Head Quarter: Madrid, Spain

Director General: Zurab Pololikashvili

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Formation:1964

Objectives:

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is involved in formulating policies related to trade, aid, transport, finance and technology at global scale.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Mukhisa Kituyi

Is India a member? yes

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

Formation:1950

Objectives:

  • Collects and exchange meteorological and hydrological data with the whole world for proper communication and mitigate disaster.
  • Disaster risk management and combating its post effect.
  • The Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS).
  • The WMO Integrated Global Observing System (WIGOS).
  • Aviation meteorological services.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General: Petteri Taalas

International Environmental Institution


United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP)

Formation:1972

Objectives:

  • developing international environmental conventions.
  • promoting environmental science and information.
  • funding environmental development projects including reforestation and wetlands restoration.
  • formulating guidelines on issues like the international trade in potentially harmful chemicals, transboundary air pollution and contamination of international waterways.
  • maintaining a repository of scientific and environmental research.

Head Quarter: Nairobi,Kenya

Director General: Inger Andersen 

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC)

Formation:1992

The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty which was signed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development also known as the Earth Summit, the Rio Summit or the Rio Conference.

Objectives:

  • to stabilize the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to combat the climate change.
  • Adaptation to climate change for the safekeeping of food production.
  • Promotion of economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
  • Institutional arrangements like the Conference of the Parties (COP).
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body which functions under the United Nations.

Formation:1988 

The IPCC was established in 1988 by the cooperation of World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 

Objectives:

IPCC reports to the parent organisations WMO and UNEP over the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to human-induced climate change and its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.

Head Quarter: Geneva,Switzerland

Director General: Hoesung Lee

CITES

Formation:1963 

Objectives:

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement which works through international and regional economic integration for the protection of wild animals and plants.

The CITES Secretariat is administered by UNEP

Head Quarter: Geneva,Switzerland

Director General: Ivonne Higuero

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

IUCN is an international organisation which works on protection and preservation of nature and natural resources.

Formation:1975

Objectives:

  • IUCN works for the conservation of natural resources.
  • It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects and education.

Head Quarter:  Gland, Switzerland

Director General: Dr Bruno Oberle

TRAFFIC

Formation: 1976

Objectives: It a Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network.

  • Works globally on the trade of endangered wild animals and plants aiming at biodiversity and sustainable development.
  • TRAFFIC was as a strategic alliance of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
World Wide Fund for Nature

Formation: 1961 

Objectives:

WWF is an international non-governmental organization that works in the field of wilderness preservation and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

Head Quarter: Gland, Switzerland

President and CEO: Pavan Sukhdev

Other Important International Organisation


World Economic Forum (WEF)

Formation:1971

Objectives:

  • World Economic Forum organises annual flagship meeting every year at the end of January in Davos, Switzerland.
  • WEF works on various aspects like Health,Society,Environment,Good governance at global scale.

Head Quarter: Cologny, Switzerland

Founder and Executive Chairman: Klaus Schwab

World Economic Forum releases few indexes that ranks countries on various issues.

  • The Global Gender Gap Index 
  • The Global Competitiveness Report
  • Global Social Mobility Index
G20

The G20 or the group of 20  is an informal international group of 19 countries and the European Union, with a set of comprehensive support from the organisations like International Monetary Fund,World Bank,The International Labour Organization,The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization etc

Formation: 1999 

Objectives:

  • The G20 is focused on various issues of global importance including Tax and fiscal policy,Trade,Agriculture,Employment,Energy etc.
  • G20 also involves in fighting against corruption,Women empowerment,Combating terrorism,Climate change etc

India a Member? Yes

G7

The Group of Seven (G-7) is an intergovernmental group of seven countries like France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States and Canada.

Inclusion of Russia makes the group the G8.

Formation: The formation of G7 was proposed in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) was established by the G-7 groping in Paris in 1989 aiming at curbing terrorism financing.

Objectives: G7 has basic objectives like global economic governance, international security and energy policy, gender equality,biodiversity etc

India a Member? No, India is not a member. However, India was invited at 45th G-7 summit hosted by France in 2019.India’s presence at the G7 summit also acknowledges the changing world order and India’s growing influence as a major economic power.

BRICS

BRICS is the acronym which stands for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

Formation: 2009

Objectives:

  • Promotes cooperation in mutually beneficial development among the member countries
  • To boost economic strengths.
  • To emerge as a political-diplomatic entity.

India a Member? Yes

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

Formation: 1967 through ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration)

ASEAN includes 10 member states and 2 observer states.

Head Quarter: Jakarta,Indonesia

India a Member? No

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Formation: 2001

SCO includes 8 countries Kazakhstan,China,Kyrgyzstan,Russia,Tajikistan,Uzbekistan,India and Pakistan

Objectives: SCO is an intergovernmental international organisation focused on issues like 

  • Strengthening mutual trust among the member states.
  • Promoting inclusive and sustainable cooperation in the fields like politics, culture,trade, economy, research development technology.
  • Enhance ties in education, energy, transport, tourism etc.
  • SCO promotes peace and monitors security and stability in the region.

India a Member? Yes

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

Formation: SAARC was established through SAARC Charter in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. SAARC comprises of eight member States.

These are Afghanistan,Bangladesh,Bhutan,India,Maldives,Nepal,Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Head Quarter: Kathmandu, Nepal.

India a Member? Yes

The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)

Formation:1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.

BIMSTEC includes 7 members such as Bangladesh,Bhutan,India,Nepal,Sri Lanka,Myanmar and Thailand

Objectives:

It is a regional multilateral organisation focused in Sovereign Equality,Territorial Integrity,Political Independence,No-interference in Internal Affairs, Peaceful Co- existence in the region.

India a Member? Yes

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Formation: 1989

Objectives:

  • To establish new markets for agricultural products countering western dominance.
  • To stimulate economic growth in Asia-Pacific region.
  • To reduce the costs of business transactions across the region.

Head Quarter: Queenstown, Singapore

India a Member? No

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

Formation: 1948

Objectives: OECD is involved in stimulating economic progress and world trade.

Head Quarter: Paris, France

Director General:José Ángel Gurría

India a Member? No

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 

Formation:1949

Head Quarter: Brussels, Belgium

Secretary General: Jens Stoltenberg

India a Member? No

International Atomic Energy Agency

Formation: 1957

Objectives: International Atomic Energy Agency promotes contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.

Head Quarter: Vienna, Austria

Director General:Rafael Grossi

India a Member? Yes

Amnesty International

Formation: 1961

Objectives: It is a non-governmental body which works on human rights of Women’s, children, minorities,refugees,prisoners etc at the global scale.

Head Quarter: London,United Kindom

Director General:Kumi Naidoo

India a Member? Yes

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Formation: 1995

World Trade Organization (WTO) was established by replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was launched in 1948.

Objectives:

  • WTO works on reduction of costs of production and doing business internationally.
  • The WTO is focused on stimulating the economic growth and employment.
  • The WTO encourages good governance with transparency.

Head Quarter: Geneva, Switzerland

Director General:Roberto Azevêdo

India a Member? Yes

Confusing GK pointer
The head quarter of World Trade Organization (WTO) is at Geneva, Switzerland but the head quarter of United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) is at Madrid, Spain.

International Sports Organisation


FIFA or International Federation of Association Football

Formation: 1904

Head Quarter: Zürich, Switzerland

President:Gianni Infantino

Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)

Formation: 1954

Head Quarter: Nyon, Switzerland

President: Thomas Bach

International Cricket Council (ICC)

Formation:1909

Head Quarter: Dubai,UAE

CEO: Manu Sawhney

FIDE or International Chess Federation

Formation:1924

Head Quarter: Lausanne, Switzerland

President:Arkady Dvorkovich

International Olympic Committee

Formation:1894

Head Quarter: Lausanne, Switzerland

President:Jacques Rogge

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Biosphere Reserve,National Park,Wildlife Sanctuary In India https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/biosphere-reservenational-parkwildlife-sanctuary-in-india.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=biosphere-reservenational-parkwildlife-sanctuary-in-india https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/biosphere-reservenational-parkwildlife-sanctuary-in-india.html#respond Sun, 09 Aug 2020 10:12:13 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1036 India is a country of spectacular biodiversity.India  protects this mega-diversity through many Biosphere Reserve,National Park,Wildlife Sanctuary etc. In this article we will discuss the topics in detail.Let’s learn. Before we jump into Biosphere Reserve,National Park,Wildlife Sanctuary etc let’s learn about protected area. Protected areas can be defined as an area […]

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India is a country of spectacular biodiversity.India  protects this mega-diversity through many Biosphere Reserve,National Park,Wildlife Sanctuary etc. In this article we will discuss the topics in detail.Let’s learn.

UNESCO Biosphere Reserve,National Park,Wildlife Sanctuary In India

Do you Know?
India contributes almost 8% of the global biodiversity with only 2.4% of the world’s land area.

Before we jump into Biosphere Reserve,National Park,Wildlife Sanctuary etc let’s learn about protected area.

What is Protected Area?

Protected areas can be defined as an area where human occupation or the exploitation of natural resources like Carbon stocks, rain forests etc are restricted or limited.

Protected area also includes

  • Some area of ocean or lake or other water bodies.
  • Trans-boundary Protected Areas that is overlapped in between multiple countries.

Protected areas are further classified into several categories depending on the level of protection with regard to the enacted laws of concerned country or the guidelines of the international organizations involved.

  • National Park
  • Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Conservation Reserve
  • Community Reserve  
What are Biosphere Reserves?

Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems a combination of both.Biosphere reserves are the sites declared by various countries and recognized under UNESCO’s man and biosphere programme.

Significance of Biosphere Reserve
  • Biosphere reserves balance economic and social development.
  • Biosphere reserves promote cultural values along with the preservation of nature.
  • Biosphere reserves are the symbol of co-existence of people and nature.
  • Biosphere reserves are used for scientific research and monitoring.
  • Encourages sustainable development among the communities of the region.
Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme of UNESCO
  • Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme launched by UNESCO in 1971
  • The programme is focused to establish a scientific basis of relationships between human and environments.
  • World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) was formed under Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme.
  • The names of Biosphere reserves are nominated by various countries. If selected by UNESCO, they are included in the WNBR.
Structure of Biosphere Reserves

There are three zone of Biosphere reserve

Biosphere Reserve structure

  • Core is the protected area where no human activity are allowed. It is undisturbed and legally protected area.
  • Buffer Surrounds the core area.Cooperative educational activities and environmental research are allowed in this region. Eco-tourism are allowed in this region. Safari zone are allowed up to Buffer zone.
  • Transition zone is the area which allow variety of sustainable agricultural activities,human settlements are allowed and scientists,NGOs can work together to manage and explore the area’s biological resources.
List of Biosphere Reserves in India

There are 18 Biosphere Reserves in India.

Biosphere Reserve in India

Biosphere Reserves and Focused Fauna State
Cold Desert-Snow Leopard Himachal Pradesh
Nanda Devi-Asiatic black Bear, snow Leopard, brown Bear Uttrakhand
Dehang-Debang-Mishmi takin, red Goral, musk deer,red Panda Arunachal Pradesh
Manas-Golden langur and red panda Assam
Dibru-Saikhowa-Golden langur Assam
Khangchendzonga-Snow Leopard,red Panda Sikkim
Nokrek-Red Panda Meghalaya
Panna-Tiger,Chital,Chinkara,Sambhar and Sloth Bear Madhya Pradesh
Pachmarhi-Giant and flying Squirrel Madhya Pradesh
Achanakmar-Amarkantak Madhya Pradesh-Chhattisgarh
Kachchh-Indian wild Ass Gujarat
Similipal-Gaur,Royal Bengal Tiger,wIld Elephant Odisha
Seshachalam-Slender Loris and Pangolin Andhra Pradesh
Sundarban-Royal Bengal Tiger West Bengal
Agasthyamala-Nilgiri Tahr,Elephants Karnataka-Tamil Nadu-Kerala
Gulf of Mannar-Dugong or Sea cow Tamil Nadu
Nilgiri –Nilgiri Tahr,lion tailed Macaque  Tamil Nadu-Kerala-Karnataka
Great Nicobar-Saltwater Crocodile Andaman & Nicobar Island
What is the First Biosphere Reserve in India?
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (Established on 1986)
What is the Smallest Biosphere Reserve in India?
Panna Biosphere Reserve
What is the Largest Biosphere Reserve in India?
Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve
What is a National Park?
  • An area can be defined by the state government as a National Park, by its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological or zoological association or importance, which is needed to be protected for the development of wildlife and the environment around.
  • National parks in India are listed under IUCN category II protected areas.
  • Activities like hunting, grazing, forestry or cultivation are strictly prohibited inside the national parks.
  • No human activity other than permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state, is not allowed.
Do you know?
India’s first national park was Hailey National Park, Uttarakhand which was established in 1936, now known as Jim Corbett National Park.
Do you know?
There are 104 national parks in India which cover almost 1.23% of the geographical area of the country. Source:National Wildlife Database, May 2019.
What was India's first Marine Wildlife Sanctuary?
Gulf of Kutch was established in 1980.
What was India's first Marine National Park?
Gulf of Kutch was designated as Marine National Park in 1982.
Marine National Parks in India

  1. Gulf of Kutch Marine National Park in Gujarat.
  2. Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park in Andaman Islands.
  3. Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park in Tamil Nadu.
  4. Rani Jhansi Marine National Park in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
What is the oldest National Park of the world?
Yellowstone National Park in USA
What is the largest National Park of the world?
East Greenland National Park,Greenland
What is a Wildlife Sanctuary?

Any area other than reserve forest or the territorial water body can be designated as a sanctuary by the concerned state government if such area is of significant ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological importance,which is needed to be protected for the development of wildlife and the environment around.

Do You Know?
There are 551 wildlife sanctuaries in India.Source:National Wildlife Database, May 2019.
Do You Know?
There are 870 protected areas in India. Source:National Wildlife Database, May 2019.
Know the Difference Between the National Park, Wildlife Sanctuary and Biosphere Reserve.
National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve
1.Full habitat is protected A species is protected Entire Ecosystem is protected
2.Boundaries are circumscribed by legislation Boundaries are sacrosanct or inviolable Boundaries are circumscribed by legislation
3.Limited biotic interference Limited biotic interference No biotic interference except the buffer zone
4.Tourism is allowed Tourism is allowed Tourism is not but Eco-Tourism is allowed up to buffer zone.
5.Research and Scientific culture is not focused Research and Scientific culture is not focused Research and Scientific culture is managed
6.Gene Pool and conservation is not carried out. Gene Pool and conservation is not carried out. Gene Pool and conservation is carried out.

 

What are Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves?

Conservation reserves and community reserves are the areas completely owned by Government of India and these areas act as migration corridors between existing national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and  protected forests areas of India.

Conservation of Wildlife in India
  • The Government of India enacted the Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972 to protect the wildlife within the country and to curb and restrict poaching, smuggling and illegal trade in various protected areas across the country.
  • A National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) has been established in 1952. NBWL is chaired by the Prime Minister of India. NBWL was set up for a policy framework for wildlife conservation in the country.The NBWL operates under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
  • The National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016) was launched in 2002. The National Wildlife Action Plan encourages the people’s participation and support for wildlife conservation. The National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) also formulates a policy that links wildlife planning to climate change.

  • The subject of forests and wildlife is included in the concurrent list of the Indian Constitution,drawing the responsibility of wildlife conservation on both the Centre and the State.

  • Various Projects focused on specific species were launched like Project Tiger (1973) ,Operation Crocodile (1975), Project Rhinoceros (1987), Project Elephant (1988) Project Snow Leopard (2009)
Some Current Affairs on National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary in 2020
  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park in Assam is in news due to a well of Oil India Limited had blown out and a massive fire engulfed the area killing and affecting the flora and fauna of the region.
  • Bhitarkanika National Park in Odisha is in news as census result cited that the population of salt water (or estuarine) crocodiles have increased.
  • Manas National Park in Assam is a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site. It is a  Project tiger reserve and a biosphere reserve.India, Bhutan, Nepal will jointly work on a trans Border Conservation Park. The park will be an extension of Manas National Park.
  • Eravikulam National Park in Idukki, Kerala. At least 18 persons were killed and 52 others are missing in a landslips at Pettimudy, near Eravikulam National Park.
  • Assam government will convert the Dehing Patkai wildlife sanctuary to national park.
  • Kaziranga National Park in Assam is famous for One-horned rhino.
  • The Uttarakhand govt has already cleared diversion of 70 hectares of forest land area in the Gangotri National Park for construction of strategically important roads up to China border.
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu is in news as rejuvenation camp for elephants was started.
  • An environment clearance was approved to the Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed train corridor or the ‘bullet train project’ which will pass through the Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary and the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai,Maharashtra.
  • Sariska Wild life Sanctuary is in news as Dekho Apna Desh webinar was titled ‘Destination- Sariska Tiger Reserve’ was launched in Rajasthan.
Some GK Questions Based on National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuary in India
National Chambal Sanctuary is famous for which animals?
Gangetic dolphin and also for magar (Crocodile) and Gharial (Alligator).
Which National Park is the only for the nearly extinct Asiatic Lions in India?
Gir National Park in Gujarat
Which National Park is the natural habitat of Kashmiri Stag?
Dachigam National Park in Kashmir.
Which National Park is the largest national park in India?
Hemis National Park in Ladakh.
Which National Park is the smallest national park in India?
Guindy National Park in Tamil Nadu.
Where is Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary?
Rann of Kutch,Gujarat
Chapramari Wildlife Sanctuary is located in which state?
West Bengal

Also Read

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Know About Galapagos Island Controversy https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/know-about-galapagos-island-controversy.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=know-about-galapagos-island-controversy https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/know-about-galapagos-island-controversy.html#comments Fri, 07 Aug 2020 18:17:55 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=1007 Recently Galapagos Island is in news due to various controversial issues.The Galapagos Islands is a volcanic archipelago found in Pacific Ocean. Let’s learn.   Why is Galapagos Island in News? There are too many events which negatively impacted on this ‘Gift to conservation‘ of Ecuador. Tonnes of plastic waste piled […]

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Recently Galapagos Island is in news due to various controversial issues.The Galapagos Islands is a volcanic archipelago found in Pacific Ocean. Let’s learn.

What is an archipelago?
An archipelago is a chain or group of islands scattered in lakes, rivers, or the ocean.The word “archipelago” originated from the medieval Italian word archi, means chief or principal, and the Greek word pelagus, means gulf or pond.

 

Know About Galapagos Island Controversy

Why is Galapagos Island in News?

There are too many events which negatively impacted on this ‘Gift to conservation‘ of Ecuador.

  • Tonnes of plastic waste piled up on the shores of the Galapagos Islands where these toxic microparticles end up in the stomachs of various endangered aquatic species found only in this Pacific archipelago.
  • Recently a giant male tortoise named Diego was retired from the captive breeding programme at Galapagos National Park and is sent to his biological home in Española Island, Ecuador.
  • Chinese fishing fleet illegally entered into the Galapagos region and Ecuador has officially expressed its “discomfort” over this issue.
  • Administrative government announced a ban on fireworks on the Galapagos Islands to protect the archipelago’s unique fauna.
  • Ecuador recently activated emergency protocols to contain the environmental impact of a fuel spill in a port on San Cristobal Island of the Galapagos Islands territory, after a barge carrying 600 gallons of diesel fuel sank in the region.
Know The Geographical Position of Galapagos Island
  • Galapagos Islands is distributed on the either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean. The Island surrounds the centre of the Western Hemisphere.
  • Galapagos Islands is located at 906 km away from west bank of Ecuador.
  • The islands was formed at the meeting point of three tectonic plates Nazca, cocos and pacific

Geographical Position of Galapagos Island

Image Source: Google Map

  • Galapagos Islands is an administrative province under Ecuador.
  • The Galapagos National Park, and the Galapagos Marine Reserve are very famous ecological hotspot in this archipelago.The Galapagos National park was established in 1959 and it is Ecuador’s first national park.
  • The Humboldt Current which is also called as the Peru Current, is a cold and low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America. The Humboldt Current or Peru Current is a highly productive ecosystem. It accounts for almost 18-20% of the total worldwide marine fish catch.
  • The Humboldt Current or Peru Current flows specially in August month.Chinese fishing ships are frequent in Ecuador’s waters during august month as the cold Humboldt Current is full of nutrients that creates a high congregation of hammerhead sharks. 
Do You Know?
Ecuador made a wildlife sanctuary in 1935, and the sanctuary was converted into the Galapagos National Park in 1959. Galapagos Island became UNESCO’s first World Heritage Site in 1978.
Chief Concerns
  • Sun rays and the ocean’s saltwater breaking down the plastic bottles, bags, containers and fishing nets that come sea route thus destroying local habitat as the tiny plastic pieces become part of the food chain. These micro-particles are imposing great threats to the iguanas, birds, tortoises and fish of the Galapagos.
  • Animals are suffering from changed behaviour and the ecological change affected their survival of species inhabiting this World Heritage Site.
Know the facts
More than 90 percent of the waste gathered at the seashore of Galapagos islands come from South America and Central America.

     Ecosystems of Galapagos Island is very sensitive and fragile. The island is experiencing many man made hazards one after another, causing environmental risk to its natural bio-diversity and thus threatening UNESCO’s first World Heritage Site.

Besides it is also to be noted that the archipelago is known for its large number of endemic species such as land iguana, giant tortoise that were studied by Charles Darwin which contributed to the inception of Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Galapagos Island is a real ‘Gift to conservation’, not only for Ecuador but also for the planet. Protection and preservation of such ecological hotspot is highly needed, as it is gradually getting eaten by the uncontrolled human activities.

Also Read

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Explained: Beirut Blast and ammonium nitrate https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/explained-beirut-blast-and-ammonium-nitrate.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=explained-beirut-blast-and-ammonium-nitrate https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/explained-beirut-blast-and-ammonium-nitrate.html#comments Thu, 06 Aug 2020 16:32:24 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=955 Beirut,the capital of Lebanon experienced a massive explosion on 4th August.The explosion had taken lives of at least 135 people and left injured over 5000. Let’s learn. Two consecutive and horrific explosion happened at Beirut port silos at afternoon on 4th August.The explosion was caused by over 2,700 tonnes of […]

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Beirut,the capital of Lebanon experienced a massive explosion on 4th August.The explosion had taken lives of at least 135 people and left injured over 5000. Let’s learn.

Explained Beirut Blast and ammonium nitrate

Two consecutive and horrific explosion happened at Beirut port silos at afternoon on 4th August.The explosion was caused by over 2,700 tonnes of ammonium nitrate kept in warehouse. The blast covered around 10-20 km area around the port. It was reported that the explosion was so strong that it was felt from even 250 kilometres away.

Do You Know?
The Beirut blast created seismic waves equivalent of a magnitude 3.3 earthquake as per the reports of CNN.
How Did The Catastrophe Happen

 

The story of Beirut blast began in September 2013. A ship was heading towards Mozambique from Georgia. The ship docked at Beirut poet due to some technical issue. It came out that the ship contained 2750 tons of ammonium nitrate. The ships owner abandoned that ship to avoid legal queries. Then the ship’s departure was also came standstill trapping into legal procedures. Since then the 2750 tons of ammonium nitrate  is kept in a ware house nearby a port. It shows a huge level of negligence from the concerned authority.

What is ammonium nitrate?

 

  • ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is a white, crystalline solid chemical.
  • The chemical is industrially produced in large scale by the chemical reaction of ammonia with concentrated nitric acid.

Production of ammonium nitrate

  • ammonium nitrate is soluble in water.
  • It is a common chemical ingredient which is used as agricultural fertiliser.
  • ammonium nitrate is widely used as the ingredient of commercial explosives used in mining and construction.
  • The explosive composition known as ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO)
  • terrorists use ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) in making Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)
  • Pure form of ammonium nitrate is not an explosive material.
  • When ammonium nitrate is mixed with fuel or some other contaminants, it becomes a deadly explosive.
  • ammonium nitrate is classified as an oxidiser (Grade 5.1) under the United Nations classification of dangerous goods.
  • Explosion of ammonium nitrate produces huge amounts of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a reddish gas that causes serious respiratory illness in humans.

    It can irritate the respiratory system. Elevated levels of these pollutants are particularly concerning for people with respiratory

Regulation of ammonium nitrate  in India

 

  • 1The usage of ammonium nitrate  is regulated as per The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012, under The Explosives Act, 1884.
  • The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012, under The Explosives Act, 1884 declares storage of ammonium nitrate in large quantities in populated areas as an illegal activity and the act seeks license for any activity involving ammonium nitrate.
  • The Industrial Development and Regulation Act, 1951 comes into play for the manufacture of ammonium nitrate under industrial use.
Chief Concerns in India

 

Recently Customs department in India reported storage of 740 tonne of ammonium nitrate in a freight station in Chennai Seaport. The need of the hour is to check all the sea ports of the country whether it stores illegal ammonium nitrate or not.The enforcement of the concerned laws should be made more stringent to avoid such incidents at nay cost.

    Our condolences and thoughts are with the victims of the Beirut blast, their families and friends and with all the people of Lebanon. The time is challenging for the Lebanon. The country already is in economic crisis and continuously confronting with Hezbollah militant group. The blast has deepened all the crisis the nation is struggling with. International organisations like UNICEF, UNESCO and many NGOs are working hard with the victims in ground level to provide them assistance and supporting with medicines and vaccines. We stand in solidarity in this tragic time.

Support UNICEF’s work to protect and care for Lebanon’s children by donation.

The Beirut Blast is a eye opener for all the countries around the world.It shows how the corruption and negligence of concerned authorities could cost lives of innocent people.

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What is NGC 2899 Planetary Nebula? https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/what-is-ngc-2899-planetary-nebula.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=what-is-ngc-2899-planetary-nebula https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/what-is-ngc-2899-planetary-nebula.html#respond Wed, 05 Aug 2020 11:31:31 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=925 Recently astronomers were able to capture very detailed and stunning image of a planetary nebula, it is called as NGC 2899. Let’s learn. Astronomers used the FORS or Focal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) to successfully capture a very vivid and most detailed picture […]

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Recently astronomers were able to capture very detailed and stunning image of a planetary nebula, it is called as NGC 2899. Let’s learn.

NGC 2899 Planetary Nebula?

Astronomers used the FORS or Focal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) to successfully capture a very vivid and most detailed picture of NGC 2899. Very Large Telescope is in northern Chile.

Click here to watch the 3D view of ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT)

Know Some Terminology

 

The life cycle of a star consists various stages.

A Nebula is defined as a giant cloud of dust and gas in space. Nebula is the pre-origin stage of a star, planet,comets etc.

Nebula

Nebula

Image Credit: NASA

Protostar is a stage of dust and gases that has not yet achieved the capacity of running hydrogen fusion and it is a pre-stage before a star is born.

Planetary Nebula When the outer shell of a giant star drifts off into space, it forms a Planetary Nebula. This stage is formed in the dying days of a star.

Planetary Nebula

Planetary Nebula

Image Credit

Neutron Stars are formed when a massive star runs out of nuclear energy and collapses.A neutron star is the densest space object astronomers can examine directly.

Pulsars are a type of Neutron star which radiate two steady and narrow beams of light in opposite directions. That is why pulsars are looked like flickering stars from the Earth. Pulsars are also known as magnetars.

Pulsar

Pulsar

Image Credit: NASA

Supernova: When the nuclear fuel of a star is completely exhausted,even the most massive stars explode in space,this phenomena is called a supernova.

Black Hole:If the core left behind after a supernova is massive enough then star loses its force of gravity and collapses to form black holes. A Black hole is so small and so dense that not even light can escape from its gravity.

Constellation is a name given to a group of stars in the sky that make up a certain geometric or imaginary pattern. Cassiopeia, Zdiac, Orion are few popular Constellation.

Milky way: The Milky Way is the galaxy which includes our Solar System. A galaxy is the group of few solar systems.

Do You Know?
The name of closest known nebula to Earth is Helix Nebula.
Know about NGC 2899 Planetary Nebula
  • NGC 2899 is a southern planetary nebula.
  • The Nebula is high surface brightness.
  • This Nebula is Bi-polar.
  • NGC 2899 is located between 3,000 and 6,500 light-years away in the constellation of Vela.
  • It is assumed that NGC 2899 has two central symmetric stars.
  • NGC 2899 is a part of vela constellation.
  • Only about 10-20% of this planetary nebulae exhibits specific bipolar shape.
  • NGC 2899 is popularly known as space butterfly due to its structural resemblance with butterfly.

 

Do You Know?
Indian astrophysicists have discovered a planetary nebula named “NGC 6302” using Ultra -Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) onboard AstroSat.

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Tropospheric Ozone is increasing: Good or Bad? https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/tropospheric-ozone-is-increasing-good-or-bad.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=tropospheric-ozone-is-increasing-good-or-bad https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/tropospheric-ozone-is-increasing-good-or-bad.html#respond Tue, 04 Aug 2020 15:54:58 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=878 As per the National Air Quality Index the Tropospheric Ozone is increasing. In this article we will discuss whether it is good or bad and all associated implications.Let’s learn. NAQI was launched in 2014 by the Union Environment Ministry to monitor the air-quality in major urban cities across the country […]

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As per the National Air Quality Index the Tropospheric Ozone is increasing. In this article we will discuss whether it is good or bad and all associated implications.Let’s learn.

Tropospheric Ozone is increasing: Good or Bad?

Know About National Air Quality Index (NAQI)
  • NAQI was launched in 2014 by the Union Environment Ministry to monitor the air-quality in major urban cities across the country on a real-time basis and enhance the public awareness on air pollution.
  • NAQI is developed by the Central Pollution Control Board collaborating with IIT-Kanpur.
  • Outline of NAQI is ‘One Number – One Color -One Description
  • The Air quality is measured based on eight pollutants,these are
    Particulate Matter (PM10), Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3), Ammonia (NH3), and Lead (Pb).
  • NAQI demonstrates six categories of air quality. These categories are Good, Satisfactory, Moderately Polluted, Poor, Very Poor and Severe.

National Air Quality Index

What Is Ozone?
  • Ozone or tri-oxygen(O3) is an inorganic molecule.
  • It is a pale blue gas.
  • The gas featured with distinct pungent smell.
  • It is a green house gas i.e it warms the atmosphere.
  • Ozone is a secondary pollutant.
Types of Pollutants
Pollutants are two types i.e Primary and Secondary Pollutants.Primary pollutants are directly generated from vehicles, fossil fuel power plants, oil refineries.Primary pollutants are Carbon dioxide,Carbon monoxide,Sulphur dioxide etc and Secondary pollutants are generated from a chemical reaction of primary pollutants. Secondary pollutants include Ozone,hydrocarbons,acid rains etc
  • Depending of it’s presence Ozone can be harmful or beneficial. let’s know in details
Types of Ozone

Ozone gas ca be classified into two types depending on it’s presence over the atmospheric layer.

  • Stratospheric Ozone or Good Ozone is the Ozone present in Stratosphere.90% Ozone are found in Stratosphere.Stratospheric Ozone protects earth from Ultraviolet emission from the Sun.
  • Tropospheric Ozone or Bad Ozone is the Ozone present in Troposphere. 10% Ozone are found in Troposphere. Tropospheric Ozone causes significant damage to living organisms and plants.
Sources of Tropospheric Ozone
  • Ozone formation requires strong sunshine to fuel the chemical reaction. Let’s know how
  • Nitrogen dioxide molecules are broken down in sunlight. Free oxygen is very unstable and latches onto a molecule of Oxygen (O2). Thus Ozone is formed.

Formation of Ozone

  • Usually the ozone levels in the atmosphere reaches at its peak in mid to late afternoon, after exhaust fumes from morning rush hour.
Effects of Tropospheric Ozone
  • Tropospheric Ozone damages plants and agricultural sector.
  • Reduces photosynthesis  rate.
  • Causes chronic diseases like bronchitis and emphysema, asthma and even capable to damage lung tissue permanently.
Do You Know?
Tropospheric ozone pollution is responsible for an estimated one million premature deaths each year. Children and the elderly people get severely affected by Tropospheric ozone.
  • Significantly reduces crop productivity.

Do You Know?
Estimated global crop production losses due to ozone pollution is approximately total 79–121 million tonnes and worth USD 11–18 billion annually.
  • Negatively impacts on carbon sequestration of plants.
What Is Carbon Sequestration?
Carbon sequestration is a process of storing atmospheric carbon dioxide by plants to create a carbon sink and reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Preventive Measures
  • Strategies to prevent the formation of tropospheric ozone basically involves reduction of methane production.One of the major source of methane is animal farming.Thus farm-scale anaerobic digestion to control methane emissions from livestock should be promoted.
  • Global adoption of strict guidelines, could reduce global methane emissions by as much as 40% by 2030.
  • Wastewater treatment should be upgraded.
  • Separation and treatment of biodegradable municipal waste should be carried out to convert waste into compost or bio-energy.

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Know All About Cyclone Disaster Management https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/know-all-about-cyclone-disaster-management.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=know-all-about-cyclone-disaster-management https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/know-all-about-cyclone-disaster-management.html#respond Mon, 03 Aug 2020 15:01:42 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=866 Cyclones are one of the most disastrous natural calamities,causing enormous environmental and economical damage to the society. Let’s know all about cyclone disaster management. What Is Cyclone? Cyclones are the most intense storms on earth. A cyclone can be defined as an atmospheric disturbance where winds rotate counterclockwise direction in […]

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Cyclones are one of the most disastrous natural calamities,causing enormous environmental and economical damage to the society. Let’s know all about cyclone disaster management.

Do You Know?
8% of total geographical area in India is cyclones-prone.Natural disasters destroys 2% of GDP every year in India.
What Is Cyclone?

Cyclones are the most intense storms on earth. A cyclone can be defined as an atmospheric disturbance where winds rotate counterclockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere around a low pressure center. The air circulation rises and cools and then creates clouds and precipitation.

What is Anticyclone?
An anticyclone is the opposite phenomena of wind system of a cyclone. An anticyclone’s winds rotate clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere. It is formed around a center of high pressure. Air comes from the above and falls on the ground.

Know All About Cyclone Disaster Management

Types of Cyclones

Cyclones are mainly of two types

  1. Tropical cyclones
  • Tropical cyclones are formed between the region Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
  • Tropical cyclones are of thermal origin.
  • It is formed around a low-pressure centre which is associated with the convergence of wind rotating inwards direction to the low-pressure point. Thus a closed cyclonic vortex is formed. Coriolis force and the rapid inward circulation create the cyclonic vortex.

     2. Extratropical/Temperate cyclones

  • Also known as Mid-Latitude Cyclones.
  • Extratropical cyclones are formed in winter in the mid-latitudes and move eastward with the flow of westerly winds.
  • .Extratropical cyclones are generally fierce in the mid-Atlantic and New England states where they are known as nor’easters, because they are originated from the northeast.
Do you know?
Cyclones rotates in anti-clockwise direction in northern hemisphere and clockwise direction in southern hemisphere.
Favourable Conditions For Cyclones

  • An intense low-pressure condition where the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone forms 5 to 8 degree away from the equator.
  • Sea surface temperature more than 27-degree Celsius is favorable for tropical cyclones.
  • Presence of the Coriolis force.
  • An adequate vapour supply through evaporation.
  • Differential heating of land and sea.

Different Names of Cyclones in The World


The cyclones are called by different names in various parts of the planet.

Name Region
Typhoon Northwest Pacific including the South China Sea
Hurricane North Atlantic including the Caribbean sea
Willy-Willy North-Western Australia
Tornado West Africa and Southern USA
Tropical Cyclone India oceans
Effects of Cyclones

  • Loss of life,property,infrastructure,communication system etc.
  • Torrential rains causes inland flooding, landslides, soil erosion etc.
  • Abnormal rise in sea level around the coastline reduces the soil fertility.
  • Economic loss to the tourism industry and fishermen.
Nomenclature of Tropical Cyclones

Tropical cyclones are given name to ease the communication between various centers,thus helps in better coordination and management.Name of a cyclone is decided by several countries in the region and is done under the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

For the Indian Ocean region, a nomenclature formula for cyclones was accepted in 2004 between eight countries in the region. These are Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Srilanka and Thailand. All countries suggested a set of names which are assigned in a particular sequence whenever a cyclone is developed in the Indian Ocean region.

Recently 5 more countries like United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Qatar, Iran, Saudi Arabia were added in the nomenclature panel of Indian Ocean region. These new countries will also suggest a set names.

Nomenclature of Cyclones in Indian Ocean

After the Amphan,Nisarga the next names will be Gati then Nivar and nomenclature will be continued.

Tropical Cyclones and India 

Cyclones in India occurs during the month of May, June, October, and November.

Do you know?
India is a country with the long coastline of 7516.16 km.Indian coastline experiences around 10% of tropical cyclones in the world.

Cyclone management in India

The cyclones are natural phenomenon.We can’t control nature, but if we focus on preparedness,adaptation, adequate response the damage caused by cyclones can be mitigated. Indian government have taken steps and started dedicated departments, authorities and fund for the cyclone management in India.

  • Indian Meteorological Department(IMD) is the nodal agency for early warning of natural calamities like cyclones and floods.
  • Natural Disaster Management Authority deals the disaster management in India. Natural Disaster Management Authority has prepared a set of National Guidelines on Management of Cyclone.
  • National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) was launched by the Ministry of Home Affairs to forecast and track cyclones in risk zone.
  • National Disaster Response Force(NDRF) is involved in rescue and relief work.
  • National Disaster Response Reserve (NDRR) A contingency fund of 250 crores under NDRF is maintained for an emergency situation.
  • National Disaster Management Plan was launched in 2016. It provides a comprehensive guideline to deal with prevention, mitigation, response and recovery during a disaster. Ministry of earth science is assigned for disaster management of cyclone. By this plan, India becomes the member of the countries under the Sendai Framework For Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
Hindrance Faced In Disaster Preparedness and Management
  • Lack of proper coordination between the central and state government.
  • Improper communication that leads to unpreparedness among the communities.
  • Lack of awareness among local people about the time of impact and magnitude of the disaster.
  • Ecologically sensitive areas like mining zone, national park or wild life sanctuary are vulnerable to natural disasters like cyclones.
  • Lack of coordination between the local communities makes the rescue operation more difficult and thus casualties are increase in post-disaster scenario.

Increased Industrial activity, deforestation, encroachments of wetlands, pollution due to vehicles across the planet are causing the nature more unstable and unpredictable. Science and Technology can warn us about upcoming natural calamity like cyclone but science still incapable to save living organisms and properties from Nature’s wrath.

India should prepare to mitigate and deflect the destruction caused by Cyclones.India need to invest more on research and development on technology, communication and remote sensing satellites for more accurate and efficient weather forecast. Strict guidelines and command structure involving the participation and cooperation of local communities including the state and central government in the affected area should be incorporated.

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UNICEF Report on Lead Poisoning of Children https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/unicef-report-on-lead-poisoning-of-children.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=unicef-report-on-lead-poisoning-of-children https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/unicef-report-on-lead-poisoning-of-children.html#respond Mon, 03 Aug 2020 06:51:33 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=853 UNICEF recently published a report on Lead Poisoning of Children. The report revealed that around 1 in 3 children are affected by Lead poisoning on a “massive and previously unknown scale” at a global level.Lets’s learn. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and a non-profit organization on pollution issues,Pure Earth […]

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UNICEF recently published a report on Lead Poisoning of Children. The report revealed that around 1 in 3 children are affected by Lead poisoning on a “massive and previously unknown scale” at a global level.Lets’s learn.

UNICEF Report on Lead Poisoning of Children

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and a non-profit organization on pollution issues,Pure Earth jointly published a report- “The Toxic Truth: Children’s exposure to lead pollution undermines a generation of potential”.

Crux of The Report
  • One in out of three children are having blood lead levels at or above 5 micro-grams per decilitre (µg/dL)
  • The approximate number is estimated up to 800 million at global scale.
  • Almost 50% of these affected children are from South Asia.

The report was published based on a long term analytical study undertaken by Institute of Health Metrics Evaluation. The report features case studies in Kathgora of Bangladesh; Tbilisi of Georgia; Agbogbloshie of Ghana; Pesarean of Indonesia; and Morelos State of Mexico.

What is Lead?
  • Lead (plumbum or Pb) is a soft, silvery white or grayish metal.
  • Lead is highly durable,easily malleable and resistant to corrosion and it is poor conductor of electricity.
  • Lead is a potent neurotoxin which causes irreversible damage to children’s brains.

What is Neurotoxin?
Neurotoxins are  exogenous natural or artificial toxins that cause destruction to nerve tissue or nervous system.Some of the most common neurotoxins include lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide etc.
  • Lead is till widely used in a various industry including cosmetics, paint, solder, pipes and gasoline due to its industry friendly properties.
  • Due to its ability ability to absorb vibration, lead is also used as protective shield against different types of harmful radiation. That is why lead is used in such as those found in X-ray machines and nuclear reactors.
  • Lead is also widely used in lead-acid batteries, bullets and ammunition industry.
Children

Children working at a battery workshop in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Image Source: United Nation

Impacts of Lead on Children
  • Lead is highly destructive for babies and children specially under 5 years. Lead is capable to cause lifelong neurological, cognitive dysfunction and physical impairment in babies and children.
  • Childhood lead exposure can delay physical and mental development in babies and young children.
  • Lead can trigger an mental fatigue and affinity towards crime and violence.
  • Most common Lead poisoning are due to chronic low-dose exposure. Symptoms take longer to develop due to such slow lead poisoning.
  • Slow accumulation of lead can cause kidney and nervous system damage, anemia even stroke or cancer in adults.
  • Children working in lead-battery factories generally develop early symptoms like abdominal pain, weight loss, vomiting etc.
How Does Lead Harm Brains?
Lead contamination potently inhibits the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptor, which functions an essential role in brain development and learning & memory in children and babies.
Need of The Hour

Childhood lead contamination would be a serious socio-economic threat as it is estimated to cost lower and middle-income countries almost USD $1 trillion to bring these children back into normal economic potential over their lifetime.

Government of lower and middle-income countries should primarily focused on these steps

  • Monitoring and reporting systems of blood lead level testing should be launched in an urgent basis.
  • Prevention and strict control of children’s movement to high-risk zones like certain ceramics, paints, lead-acid battery factories should be taken.
  • Treatment and remediation of affected children in high-risk zones along with economical support should be provided.
  • Public awareness campaign and public education about the menace and sources of lead exposure among the parents, schools, community leaders and healthcare workers should be promoted.
  • Global and regional actions like creating international standards and norms in manufacturing, recycling and transportation of lead acid batteries, e-waste and enforcing environmental preventive operations.

It can be easily concluded that Lead poisoning is proved to be more severe than we could ever imagine. The report critically translated the need of creation of global standard of pollution intervention on public health.The Geneva-based World Health Organisation launched the International Lead Poisoning Prevention Week of Action, from 20-26 October for spreading the awareness on laws, regulations and standards to stop the manufacture, import and sale of paints that contain lead.

Do You Know?
Pencils do not contain lead. What we know as “lead” in pencils is actually graphite. Large amounts of graphite were first discovered in Cumbria, England in 1500s, The locals assumed they had discovered lead, hence the name.
Do You Know?
In Ancient Rome, lead was added to wine by some unscrupulous people to increase the wine’s sweetness. Although this practice came to an end  in 1498 by the strict order Roman Catholic Church. As this practice continued for some time, a large-scale poisonings was observed late 18th century.

 

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Current Affairs July 2020 PDF Module https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/current-affairs-july-2020-pdf-module.html?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=current-affairs-july-2020-pdf-module https://www.textbooq.in/2020/08/current-affairs-july-2020-pdf-module.html#respond Sun, 02 Aug 2020 13:43:33 +0000 http://www.textbooq.in/?p=843 Current affairs is an important section of all competitive exams. In this article you will get the Current Affairs Module of July 2020. This is the monthly module like previous months.Let’s learn. Features of TextBooq‘s Current Affairs Module All topics are categorically distributed, thus it will be easier for students […]

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Current affairs is an important section of all competitive exams. In this article you will get the Current Affairs Module of July 2020. This is the monthly module like previous months.Let’s learn.

Current Affairs Module of June 2020

Features of TextBooq‘s Current Affairs Module

  • All topics are categorically distributed, thus it will be easier for students to memorize.
  • All the points are short and to the point.
  • There is no unnecessary points for time waste.
  • PDF is provided at the end of the article where you will find few more extra points and topics. The PDF is made mobile friendly.
  • Let’s jump into the Current Affairs Module of June 2020
Appointments
  • Shrikant Madhav Vaidya is appointed Chairman of Indian Oil Corporation (IOC).
  • Tushar Mehta is reappointed Solicitor General for a tenure of three years.
  • Prof Rattan Lal and Dr Uma Lele are selected by UN Chief to Scientific Group for 2021 Food Summit.
  • Jean Castex is appointed Prime Minister of France replacing Edouard Philippe.
  • Gudni Th. Johannesson is re-elected as President of Iceland
  • Nigar Johar appointed the 1st female Lieutenant General of Pakistan Army
  • Injeti Srinivas appointed as chairman of International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA).
  • Lee Hsien Loong becomes new Prime Minister of Singapore
  • Hemang Amin appointed interim CEO of BCCI
  • Andrzej Duda wins Poland’s presidential election
  • Ossouka Raponda appointed the 1st woman PM of Gabon
  • Roshni Nadar Malhotra becomes the new chairman of HCL
  • Alok Misra becomes new CEO & Director of Microfinance Institutions Network
  • Varun Sridhar appoints as CEO of Paytm Money
Awards and Honour
  • Freya Thakral from Delhi, received 2020 Diana Award for her humanitarian work
  • Kritika Pandey became the Asian Region prize in Overall Winner of the 2020 Commonwealth Short Story Prize. Her story is titled ‘The Great Indian Tee and Snakes’.
  • Siddhartha Mukherjee and Raj Chetty awarded ‘2020 Great Immigrants
  • Chakravarthi Rangarajan is conferred with the PC Mahalanobis Award
  • The ISRO chief K Sivan was awarded Von Karman Award 2020 by International Academy of Astronautics (IAA)
  • Chhattisgarh awarded Elites Excellence Awards under Digital India initiative
  • Indian Battalion has received the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon Environment award
  • NTPC Ltd received CII-ITC Sustainability Award 2019 under the category of outstanding accomplishment incorporate excellence category
  • Kezang D Thongdok a filmmaker of Arunachal Pradesh and has won the 2020 Dada Saheb Phalke Award for his documentary “Chi Lupo”
  • Edappadi K Palaniswami the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and is honoured by Rotary Foundation with Paul Harris Fellow recognition.
Government Schemes/Programme/Campaign/Initiative
  • Government of Maharashtra has launched ‘Project Platina’ which is the world’s largest plasma therapy trials for COVID-19 patients.
  • Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) has launched ‘Accelerate Vigyan’ Scheme
  • Odisha has launched ‘Balaram Yojana’ to provide agricultural credit of Rs 1.40 crore to landless farmers who are in problem due to COVID-19.
  • Paudhe Lagao, Paryavaran Bachao initiative was launched by Delhi Government.
  • Madhya Pradesh launches ‘Hamara Ghar-Hamara Vidyalaya’ campaign.
  • Himachal Pradesh becomes the first state in India to have 100% household LPG Gas connection
  • Nekara Samman Yojana is launched for weaver community by Karnataka govt
  • Intzaar Aap Ka’ a social media campaign is launched by Madhya Pradesh.
  • Union Defence Minister Rajnath Singh e-inaugurated 6 bridges such as Tarnah-I Bridge, Tarnah-II Bridge, Palwan Bridge, Ghodawala Bridge, Pahadiwala Bridge and Panyali Bridge in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Pure for Sure‘ Campaign is launched by Rajasthan to promote pure dairy products.
  • US Agency for International Development (USAID) joined hands with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy for Clean Energy project.
Important Days
  • 1 July National Doctors Day Theme: Lessen the mortality of COVID-19
  • International Buddhist Confederation (IBC) celebrated ‘Dharma Chakra Day’ on 4th July 2020.
  • 6 July World Zoonoses Day
  • 11 July World Population Day: Theme: Putting the brakes on COVID 19: Safeguarding the health and rights of women and girls
  • 12 July Int’l Malala Day
  • 15 July World Youth Skill Day: Theme 2020: “Skills for a Resilient Youth”
  • 17 July 2020 World Day for International Justice
  • 18 July Nelson Mandela International Day
  • 20 July International Chess Day
  • 26 July Kargil Vijay Diwas
  • 30 July 2020 World Day against Trafficking in Persons Theme 2020 : ‘Committed to the Cause-Working on the Frontline to end Human Trafficking’
Defence News
  • PASSEX a Naval exercise has been conducted by the Indian Navy and Japanese Navy in order to promote mutual understanding towards the Malacca Strait in the Indian Ocean.
  • India Coast Guard (ICG) and Indonesia Coast Guard signed a MoU for ‘Maritime Safety and Security’
    Boeing of USA has completed its delivery of AH-64E Apache and CH-47F(I) Chinook military helicopters to the Indian Air Force.
  • Indian Army acquired unmanned vehicle Raven and Spike Firefly from USA and Israel respectively
  • India successfully test fires Dhruvastra anti-guided missile, called HELINA
  • The DRDO provided drones to Indian Army for surveillance called Bharat
NASA/ISRO/Space news
  • Israel successfully launches a spy satellite Ofek 16 into space
  • ISRO will launch Brazil’s Amazonia satellite by August 2020.
  • ANASIS-II is the first military satellite of South Korea. The satellite is launched by SpaceX
  • What is the name of UAE’s Mars mission? Hope
  • China’s Mars Rover Mission: Tianwen1
Banking/Economy/Finance
  • World Bank has approved a loan of $500 million for India to build STARS Project. The STARS is basically an Education upliftment project which stands for ‘Strengthening Teaching- Learning and Results for State Program’.
  • ZipDrive’ Instant Auto Loan Facility launched By HDFC Bank
  • HDFC Bank has launched ‘e-Kisaan Dhan’ application for farmers
  • ‘Loan in Seconds’ a digital solution for instant loan disbursement is launched by Yes Bank
  • Fino Payments Bank Limited has launched ‘Bhavishya’ Saving Account for the minors of age group of 10-18 years
  • NABARD will provide Rs 795 crore financial support to West Bengal following damage due to Amphan Cyclone.
  • FamCard is the India’s first numberless payment card, launched by Fampay and IDFC First Bank.
  • The e-commerce company Amazon has begun offering auto insurance in India
Indian Railways
  • Ministry of Railways will set up solar power plant in Bina, Madhya Pradesh
  • Indian Railways aims to be fully electrified in next 3.5 years
  • Indian Railways will include all wagons under RFID for tracking by 2022
Sports
  • Ravindra Jadeja has been named as India’s ‘most valuable player’ by Wisden
  • Valtteri Bottas wins F1 Austrian GP
  • G Akash becomes India’s 66th Chess Grandmaster
  • Asia Cup Cricket 2021 will be hosted SriLanka and Pakistan in 2022
  • Lewis Hamilton won Styrian GP 2020
  • Jordan Henderson wins 2020 FWA Footballer of the Year award
  • Haryana will host the 2021 Khelo India Youth Games
Books and Author
  • Future of Higher Education–Nine Mega Trends” the book is written by CA V Pattabhi Ram
  • Overdraft: Saving the Indian Saver’ Authored by Urjit Patel
  • His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama: An Illustrated Biography’ Author: Tenzin Geyche Tethong
  • A Song of India’ is authored by Ruskin Bond
  • If it Bleeds’’Authored by Stephen King
  • The Endgame’ is Authored by Hussain Zaidi
  • The India Way: Strategies for an Uncertain World’ Authored by Dr S Jaishankar (External Affairs Minister)
  • Quest for Restoring Financial Stability in India’ Authored by Viral V Acharya (Former RBI Deputy Governor)
Miscellaneous
  • India and Bhutan have signed their first Indo-Bhutan Joint Venture of 600 Megawatt Kholongchhu Hydroelectric Project.
  • United Nation launches “Alliance for Poverty Eradication”, amid COVID-19 pandemic
  • PM Modi inaugurated Asia’s largest 750 MW Rewa ultra mega solar plant in Madhya Pradesh
  • The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) Jharkhand, has been named after Dr Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
  • Indian Pandemic Risk Pool is launched by By IRDAI. The panel head will be Suresh Mathur, ED of IRDAI
  • UNICEF has partnered with SAP India to offer Career Counselling to the Youth of India
  • The theme of India Ideas Summit 2020: Building a Better Future
  • India provided medical assistance of $1 million to North Korea. The assistance was provided under the WHO’s Anti-Tuberculosis Programme.

Current Affairs Module of July 2020 PDF is provided here. Download and boost your preparation.

Download Current Affairs Module of July 2020 PDF

 

You will find some extra topics and points in the PDF module 

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