Important Phrasal Verbs With Meaning for Competitive Exams
Important Phrasal for Competitive Exams: The questions from Phrasal verbs are asked in the English Language Section of almost all Competitive Exams like SSC, IBPS, SEBI, NABARD, etc. In the recent pattern of the English Language section, Phrasal verbs are used in error spotting, sentence improvement, and sentence correction questions. In this article, we will discuss the Most Important Phrasal Verbs with meaning for SSC, Bank exams. We will provide the Most Important Phrasal Verbs pdf at the end of the article.
The English language is all about the use of verbs with prepositions or adverbs to form a variety of meanings. When the verbs are used with prepositions, adverbs, or both, they define a different meaning than they denote as an individual word. These combinations are defined as phrasal verbs and they denote idiomatic meaning only when considered as a whole.
Defenition of Phrasal Verb: When Verbs are followed by prepositions or adverbs to acquire an idiomatic sense, the combination is known as Phrasal Verbs.
Phrasal Verbs are also known as Group verbs.
Phrasal Verb Example
- Set in=start (Verb+preposition)
- Set up=establish (verb +adverb)
- Put up with=tolerate (verb +adrerb + preposition)
Learning Phrasal verbs in English could be tricky and easy if the method is chosen right. There are many ways to memorize. But here we will focus on the Alphabetical and Pictorial way. And always use examples that relate to the events that happen in your day to day life or trending news.
Alphabetical and Pictorial way is a way to note down or preparing notes in alphabetical order. Alphabetical order is a scientific way that helps the human brain to synchronize one by one. And picture with proper examples will help you to remember the phrasal verbs for longer. Then you need to apply all your lesson into sentences and keep on practicing.
Here we will give an example of How to study Phrasal Verbs in English with the verb ‘Put‘.
Here we will provide phrasal verb meaning and an important phrasal verb list. These Phrasal verbs with examples will help you to sharpen your preparation.
Most used Phrasal verbs list with meaning and phrasal verbs sentences
Phrasal verbs With Account
- I can not account for (explain) Ramesh babu’s unusual dirty politics.
Phrasal verbs With Act
- Acts upon (Affects) one’s health.
- Acting upon (Depending) the news, I went there.
- This machine does not act up to (As expected) my expectation.
- He acted for me (on behalf of) while I was ill.
- I acted on (According to) my brother’s advice.
Phrasal verbs With Ask
- He asked for (request for) a glass of milk.
Phrasal verbs With Bear
- He bore away (won) the first prize.
- He bore down (overcame) all resistance.
- He bore off (to carry with pride) the prize.
- Your point has no bearing on (relevance) the present case.
- Your report bears out (confirms) his story.
- Pride bore him up (sustained) in adversity.
- I cannot bear with (tolerate) such conduct.
Phrasal verbs With Blow
- The wind blew away (removed) the dry leaves.
- The door opened and the boys blew in (into ) the room (arrive noisily, cheerfully).
- The chimnies blow off (emit) thick smoke.
- The child blew out (put out) the candle.
- The storm will soon blow over (stop blowing).
- The engine blew up (exploded).
- His abilities have been greatly blown up by his friends (exaggerated).
Phrasal verbs With Break
- The thief broke away (freed himself) from the jail.
- His health broke down (deteriorated) through over-work.
- The sun broke forth (Suddenly appeared) from the clouds.
- The robbers broke in ( forced their way in) at night.
- Horses are being broken in (trained) for military purposes.
- Last night a thief broke into (entered by breaking) my house.
- The mob broke in upon (enter by force) the meeting.
- He broke off (stopped) in the middle of his speech.
- Smallpox has broken out (emergence, spread) in the town.
- The thief broke out of the prison (escaped by breaking).
- They broke through (forced a passage) the main gate.
- The meeting broke up at 10 p.m.
- He has broken with me (part from).
Phrasal verbs With Bring
- His ruin was brought about (caused) by his own folly.
- This will bring down (curtail, curb) the prices of things.
- The enemy aircraft was brought down.
- This tree brings forth (produces) good fruit.
- The subject was brought forward (to bring into the discussion) for discussion in the meeting.
- My business brings in (yields) good income.
- They tried to bring in (introduce) a new fashion (or a new custom).
- Over-eating brings on (causes) dyspepsia.
- He has brought out (published) a new edition of his book.
- The patient was brought round (recovered) by careful nursing.
- After much persuasion, we managed to bring him round (win over).
- He was brought up by his aunt (reared).
Phrasal verbs With Burst
- A tiger burst forth (came out suddenly) from the jungle.
- She burst into (burst into crying) tears at the sight of her son’s misery.
- He burst out weeping like a child.(burst into crying)
- The rebels burst upon (came suddenly) the king.
Phrasal verbs With Call
- I shall call at (visit a place) your house tomorrow morning.
- Mr. Roy will call me by (pay a short visit) tomorrow.
- I called for (demanded) his explanation.
- The situation calls for (requires) immediate action.
- His heroism called forth (elicited) the admiration of all.
- Please call in a doctor (invite).
- The strike was called off (Withdrawn).
- The noise called off (diverted) my attention.
- I shall call on (visit a person) you tomorrow.
- He called on (appealed to) me for help.
- The troops were called out (retreat) to restore order.
- The teacher is calling over the roll.
- I called to (addressed loudly) him from the roof.
- He was called upon (ordered) to explain his conduct.
- I shall call upon (visit) him tomorrow.
- I can not call up (remember) his name.
Phrasal verbs With Carry
- He carries about a (to carry) pistol wherever he goes.
- He was carried away by his enthusiasm.
- He was carried away or off by the current.
- Cholera has carried off (taken the life of) many of my men.
- He carried off (won) all the prizes.
- I shall carry on (continue) the work in your absence.
- I shall carry out (execute) your orders.
- He carried the bill through the council.
- Only courage carried him through (to help in going through) the crisis.
Phrasal verbs With Cast
- He is casting about for (looking for) an opportunity to escape.
- He has cast aside or away or off (rejected) his old coat.
- He was cast down (depressed) by his failure.
- She cast down her eyes at the mention of her husband’s name.
- He will cast him out (reject) of the meeting.
Phrasal verbs With Come
- How did it come about (happen)?
- I came across (met) him on the way.
- The night guard came after (to chase) the thief with a big stick.
- Come along (hurry), it is getting late.
- The garden is coming along (growing) nicely.
- He came at (attacked) with a sharp weapon.
- The handle of the umbrella came away (became detached)
- Jobs are difficult to come by (to obtain).
- My father came down generously (made a generous gift of money).
- The roof came down (collapsed) suddenly.
- The prices of commodities came down (decreased)after the budget.
- He came down with (paid) my dues.
- None came forward (supported) to stand witness.
- He came in for (received) punishment for his conduct.
- He comes of (is descended from) a good family.
- Nothing came of his proposal (it led to no result).
- The ceremony comes off (takes place) tomorrow.
- He came off (fared) victorious.
- A button has come off (detached from)the coat.
- Come on! Let us join the race.
- The secret came out (became exposed) at last.
- They have come over to (changed sides) Our side.
- He came round (recovered) very soon.
- He has come round to my opinion (changed views).
- Won’t you come round (revisit) and see me sometime?
- His monthly expenses come to (achieved) a high figure.
- We have not yet come to any conclusion.
- He fainted but soon came to (recovered) consciousness.
- The message has just come through (arrived).
- Came upon (met by chance) my friend at the hotel.
- The enemy came upon (to attack) us from behind.
- Your essay does not come up to (is not equal to) expectations.
- I gave the chase and soon came up with ( got hold of) the thief.
Phrasal verbs With Cry
- Do not cry down (decry, underestimate) your enemy.
- I planned to take part in the tournament but cried off (abandoned) at the last moment.
- The beggars cried to (begged) the rich man for food.
- A trader cries up (extols) his own goods.
Phrasal verbs With Cut
- He cut down the tree with an axe.
- Cut down (control or curb) your expenses.
- He cut in (to take part suddenly) in the middle of our talk.
- He lives in a foreign country, cut off (separated) from his kith and kin.
- He was cut off (died) at an early age.
- One of the aircraft’s engines cut out (stopped functioning).
- He is cut out (suitable) for this job.
- I cut him out (defeated) in the competition.
- He was cut up (grieved) by your criticism.
Phrasal verbs With Die
- The wind has died down (slowly disappearing).
- Suresh did not bend in front of the temple as he thought the custom was died out (become out of use) long ago.
Phrasal verbs With Dispose
- She has deiced to dispose of (sell-off) her mother’s old home.
- My friend is disposed to (inclined) share all his experiences with us.
Phrasal verbs With Do
- They have done away with (abolished) that rule.
- This plank will do for (serve as) a table.
- His plan for the project is done for (ruined).
- I am done for/on (put on) your coat.
- I am quite done up (fatigued) with the journey.
- Who is to do up (arrange) your room every day?
- What will you do with (what use will you make of }this bundle?
- A politician has to do with (deal with) all sorts of people.
- Please return the book when done with (finished).
Phrasal verbs With Fall
- He has much fallen away (become lean) since I saw him last.
- His friends fell away (left him) in his misfortune.
- They fell back (retreated) under the charge.
- We fell back upon (had recourse to) a new line of defence.
- He falls for (yields to charms) every pretty face he sees.
- The roof fell in (gave way).
- The captain ordered his men to fall in (to take places in the ranks).
- I fell in with (met by chance) him on my way to Bombay.
- I cannot fall in with (agree with or to) your views.
- The quality of Dacca muslin has much fallen off (decreased).
- False friends fall off (drop off) in misfortune.
- He fell on (attacked) me without any reason.
- The charge of the family fell on (became responsibility) me after my father’s death.
- The brothers fell out (quarrelled) over their father’s property.
- The scheme fell through (failed ) for want of funds.
- They fell to (began eagerly) eating.
Phrasal verbs With getting
- I am too ill to get about (come out of doors).
- A rumour got about (spread) that he was ill.
- The secret got abroad (became public).
- He has got ahead (surpassed) of all other boys in the class.
- How are you getting along or on (doing, progressing) at school?
- How can I get along (manage to do) without money?
- He gets along well with his colleagues (maintains a good relationship).
- We could not get at (reach) the truth.
- What are you getting at (suggest)?
- The prisoner got away (escaped) from the jail.
- The boy got beyond (out of reach) his depth and was drowned.
- The mishap got him down (depressed).
- Please get down (write) his address.
- Let us get down to (to involve in or start or join) our job.
- What time did the train get in (arrive)?
- The rain can get in (enter) through the broken window pane.
- We have a long waiting list, I don’t think your son will get in (admitted) this year.
- He got into (get entangled) trouble there. In the hostel, he got into bad habits.
- What has got into (happened) you today?
- He got off the car.
- He got off (escaped) unharmed.
- We got off (started) immediately after lunch.
- His youth and inexperience got him off (saved him from punishment).
- You are lucky that you got off with only a fine.
- How is he getting on (doing, progressing) at school?
- I cannot get on with (to stay on flow) him.
- Get out of the room.
- The secret will soon get out (become public).
- He got over (overcame) the difficulties.
- It will take five hours to get through (finish) the work.
- I hope to get through (succeed in) the examination.
- He has not yet got through (recovered from) his illness.
- Get up at five.
- An agitation was got up (stirred up) against the bill.
- Get up (prepare) your lessons carefully.
- He was fined for getting up (producing) false evidence.
- The get-up (binding, printing, etc.) of the book is excellent.
Phrasal verbs With Give
- He has given away ( to donate) his all in charity.
- The president gave away (presented or distributed)the prizes.
- At first, I opposed the proposal, but at last, gave in (surrendered).
- He has given in (tendered) his resignation.
- This flower gives off or forth (emits) a sweet smell.
- He gave out (declared) that he was ill.
- My patience gave out (exhausted) at last.
- They were given over (handed over) to the enemy.
- He gave over (hand over to transfer the charge) the charge to me.
- Give up (to stop doing something) this bad habit.
- I tried hard but ultimately I had to give up (abandon).
Phrasal verbs With Go
- I am too weak to go about (move about).
- Go about (do) your business.
- A strong rumour is going about (is in your circulation) that he will leave us shortly.
- He went abroad (away from home, especially to a foreign country) five years ago.
- The dog went after (followed or chased) the hare.
- I cannot go against your will.
- All arrangements are going ahead (making progress) to celebrate the occasion.
- As you go along (remain involved), you will find the job interesting.
- It is difficult to go along with (agree) you on this point.
- Don’t go aside (deviate) from the path of virtue.
- The two brothers go at (attack) each other at the slightest provocation.
- They are going at it (making the best possible effort) for all they are worth.
- He has gone away (left) from here for good.
- I cannot go back upon or from (fail to keep) my word.
- The boy went beyond (exceeded) his depth and was drowned.
- He goes by (is known by) a false name here.
- He talked of days gone by (past).
- It is a good rule to go by (to be guided by).
- The price of butter has gone down (decreased).
- Netaji will go down (remembered) in Indian history as a great patriot.
- He has gone down with a fever.
- He goes here for (is regarded as) a scholar.
- Shall I go for (fetch) a doctor?
- The people went forth to welcome the leader.
- A rumour went forth (became public) that the prince was dead.
- My supporters will go in for (favour, support) the abolition of that rule.
- I shall go in for the law (become a lawyer).
- The party went off well (passed, finished).
- The pistol went off (was discharged) suddenly.
- Go on (continue) with your work.
- He went over (changed sides) to the enemy.
- Please go over (examine)the accounts.
- I went through (experienced) great suffering.
- I have gone through (to read) the book.
- I heard that the proposal went through (was accepted) without any opposition.
- The cost of living has gone up (Increased).
- The whole mine went up in (burned) flames.
- He does not go upon (follow) any fixed principles.
- I go with (agree with) you in this matter.
Phrasal verbs With Hang
- Why is he hanging around (move suspiciously) the area?
- Ramesh is hanging back (hesitate) while all are advancing.
- He hung down his head (bow head) with shame.
- Do not like to hang on (depend on) others for my bread.
- Would you hang on (wait) a minute, please?
- People hung out (displayed) flags to welcome the President.
- The debate has been hung over (postponed).
- Hang up (suspend, zams) this picture in my work.
- The crowd hung upon (listened attentively to) the speaker’s words.
Phrasal verbs With Hold
- Do not hold back (conceal, hide) anything from me.
- When others are moving on, I cannot hold back (lag behind).
- Only he held by (adhered to) me in my danger.
- Hold in (check) your temper.
- You should hold off (keep aloof) from such agitation.
- He held on (stuck to) his course through all opposition.
- He held out (extended) his hand (or, great hopes) to me.
- The rebels held out (resisted) for months.
- The ration will not hold out (last) for more than a week.
- The debate has been held over (postponed).
- Do you still hold to (stick to) your plan?
- The brothers held together (stay together)for a long time.
- Hold up (keep up) your spirits for a few days more.
- She was held up (exhibited) before us as an example.
- All traffic was held up (stopped) for one hour.
- The dacoits held up (threatened to rob) the passengers at gunpoint.
- I hold with (agree) Jou in this matter.
Phrasal verbs With Keep
- Fire keeps away or off wild animals.
- Keep away or off from an evil company.
- He is too fickle to keep at (stick to) anything.
- I never kept back (concealed) anything from you.
- He failed to keep down (control) his anger.
- You must keep from (aloof from) such friends.
- It’s wise to keep in (stay indoors) while it rains.
- I cannot keep in (continue to agree) with you any longer.
- He kept on (continued) ringing the bell.
- I was kept out (kept away) of the business.
- Keep to (stick to) your promise.
- I shall keep up (maintain) the prestige of my family.
- He kept up (remained awake) the whole night.
- Keep up your spirits despite all hazards.
- Try to keep up with (keep pace with) the class.
Phrasal verbs With Lay
- He began to lay about him (deal blows) in anger.
- Lay aside (cast aside) your formality.
- Lay aside (reserve) something for old age.
- Layby (store up for future use) something for the coming days.
- No such rules are laid down (written) in the book.
- The king laid down (gave up) the burden of the State.
- He laid down (sacrificed) his life for the country.
- He laid out (expended) his all in business.
Phrasal verbs With Look
- He is looking for (searching for) a house.
- He will look after my boy (take care).
- Don’t look down upon (deride) the poor.
- I looked for (expected) better treatment from you.
- Look for (search for) the letter in the box.
- We look forward to (expect with pleasure) his visit.
- I shall look in (pay a short visit) when pass by his house.
- I shall look into (enquire into) the matter.
- I look on or upon (regard) you as my best friend.
- The captain ordered the men to look out (be on the watch).
- The eagle is looking out for (on the watch for) prey.
- Please look over (examine) the applications.
- I have looked through (examined carefully) the book.
- Look (attend) to your own affairs.
- I look to (rely on) you for help.
- Prices of all things are looking up (rising) every day.
- Please look me up (visit) on your way to the station.
- Lookup (find out) the word in the dictionary.
- After a dull period, the business is looking up (improving) now.
- Look up to (respect) him as my elder brother.
Phrasal verbs With Make
- The dog made after (pursued) the hare.
- He made away with (destroyed) his own life.
- The ship made for (moved towards) the port.
- Regular habits make for (contribute to) good health.
- What do you make of (understand) the letter?
- This table is made of (composed of) teak wood.
- The man-made off (ran away) with my bag.
- I cannot make out (understand) what you say.
- Make out (prepare) a list of your books.
- He made over (delivered) charge to me.
- Two boys are still wanting to make up (complete) the required number.
- I shall make up (compensate) my loss in six months.
- We made up (composed) our quarrel.
- He has not yet made up (decided) his mind.
- Nothing can make up for (compensate for) the loss of health.
Phrasal verbs With Pass
- The clouds have passed away (gone).
- He passed away (died) at night.
- The train has passed by.
- He passed by (ignored) my faults.
- He passed for (was regarded as) a rich man there.
- The rain passed off (ceased gradually).
- He was punished for trying to pass off (deceive with) false coins.
- Let us pass on (proceed) to another subject.
- The ceremony passed off well (was a success).
- My claim was passed over (neglected).
- He passed through the crowd safely.
- He passed through (Experienced) great hardships in life.
Phrasal verbs With Pull
- The labourers are pulling at (trying to remove) the heavy machine.
- Failing to yield to me, they started pulling me apart (criticize unfavourably).
- We decided to pull down (demolish) the old building.
- He looks much pulled down (lowered in health or spirits).
- He is pulling in (earning) a lot of money.
- He was pulled in (detained, arrested) by police for questioning.
- The train pulled in (entered the platform) on time.
- The children pulled off (removed) the cover as soon as the packet was presented to them.
- Our team pulled off (achieve) a brilliant victory.
- The train pulled out (left) of the station.
- He was pulled out of (get rid of) the difficult situation.
- He is in great difficulties but he will pull through (overcome) if we offer him a little help.
- He was critically ill but has pulled through (recovered ).
- They are pulling together (work in harmony) nicely.
- I pulled up (stopped) the car as the traffic police showed his hands.
- He was pulled up (reprimanded) for his poor performance.
- Initially, he was trailing but soon he pulled up with others (improved relatively).
Phrasal verbs With Put
- He failed to put across (communicate successfully) his ideas to the committee.
- You should put aside (save) sufficient money for your daughter’s marriage.
- Put aside your work and listen to me.
- Put away (lay aside) enough money for old age.
- Put back (restore) the book in its proper place.
- Put by (lay aside) something for future days.
- The rebellion was put down (suppressed) with a high hand.
- Put down (write) your name on this paper.
- He put forth (exerted) all his energy into the task.
- Trees put forth (germinate) new leaves in spring.
- The members put forward (preferred) a suggestion for consideration.
- Dr. Chowdhury put forward (advanced) a new theory on solar energy.
- I have put in (submitted) my claim.
- He has put in ten years’ service.
- Don’t put off (postpone) the meeting.
- Put off (remove) your shoes.
- Put on (wear) your clothes.
- Put out (extinguish) the lamp.
- Put up (raise) a fence around your home.
- I can not Put up with (tolerate) this rudeness.
Phrasal verbs With Run
- The children started to run about (in hurry) from one place to another in great panic.
- I ran across (met by chance) my old friend in the street after a lapse of twenty years.
- They all ran after the thief (pursued).
- Do not run after money always.
- He is running against (fighting) heavy odds.
- The dog ran at (attacked) the hare.
- His son ran away (left home) and joined the army.
- My servant ran away with my watch.
- They had a runaway (easy) victory in the match.
- The hunters ran down (chased) the fox.
- He looks much run down (exhausted through excessive labour).
- The motorist was run down by the lorry.
- The battery has run down (exhausted).
- He ran into danger (or debt) for his rashness.
- The bus ran into (collided with) the railing.
- The publication has run into ten editions.
- I ran into (met unexpectedly) an old friend on the football ground.
- The thief saw me and ran off (fled).
- Our discussion ran on (continued) for hours together.
- The engine runs on diesel oil.
- Water ran out of the tank.
- The garrison did not surrender until provisions ran out (were exhausted).
- A dog was run over by a tram car.
- The water of the river ran over (overflowed) its banks.
- He ran over (glanced overhastily) my petition.
- He ran through (pierced) the boar with a spear.
- I ran through (examine quickly) the book in an hour.
- He has run through (used up) his whole fortune.
- The money required for the project will run to (amount to) a few lacs of rupees.
- The price of petrol ran up (increased) to Rs.16.00 a litre.
- The cyclist ran upon (collided with) the lamp post.
- I ran upon (be engrossed with) a new idea to solve the problem.
Phrasal verbs With Set
- Set about (begin) your task without delay.
- The High Court set aside (cancelled) the judgment of the lower court.
- He set aside or apart from some money for me.
- The judge set down (recorded) my objection.
- He set forth (exhibited) his views in a book.
- He set forth (started) on his journey.
- The rain set in (began).
- He set off (started) for Bombay.
- The gains were set off (balanced) against losses.
- He set his dog on me (aATa 7a).
- He has set out (started) for England.
- Let us set to (begin) work at once.
- They set him up (presented) as their candidate.
Phrasal verbs With Stand
- Do not stand against (oppose) the force of time.
- Please stand aside (move) to let the women pass.
- He stood aside (to withdraw) from the contest.
- The total contribution so far stands at (sums up) rupees ten thousand.
- The chief stood by (supported) the king.
- The army is standing by (to be ready)to support the civil authorities.
- The letter “X” stands for (symbolizes) ten.
- Dipu has been asked to stand in (substitute) for him.
- I stood off (being away) from the quarrel.
- He stood out (be conspicuous) from the rest because of his height and dignified appearance.
Phrasal verbs With Take
- I was taken aback (surprised) at this news.
- The child takes after (resembles) its father Do not take away (remove) books from the shelf.
- I cannot take back (withdraw) my words.
- Take down (a record) the notes.
- Take down the book from the shelf.
- I took him for (regarded as) a doctor.
- This wi take from (lower) your reputation as a sensible man He has taken in (enclosed) this plot of land for a garden.
- I was taken in (cheated) by the grocer.
- Can not take in (understand) the meaning of the passage.
- We shall take in (admit) fifty boys this time.
- Before selecting him, his health has to be taken into consideration.
- Take off (remove) your coat.
- The plane took off at 7a.m.
- Take your hands off my shoulder.
- The morning bus service will be taken off (withdrawn) the route next week.
- I decided to take on (undertake) the extra job.
- I shall take you on at table tennis (accept as an opponent).
- He will take over (accept) charges tomorrow.
- He has taken to (habituated himself to) gambling.
- He took up (adopted) my cause. “He took up a pen and began to write.” This cot takes up (occupies) too much space.
Phrasal verbs With Turn
- You can’t just turn around (be duplicitous) and say that it was all my fault.
- The director has really turned the company around.(reverse a situation or trend)
- I do not know why he turned against (became hostile) me.
- The sight pained me and I turned away (to look the other side/divert the mind).
- Turn away (dismiss) the idea from your mind.
- Don’t turn back (reject) a beggar from your door.
- He turned down (rejected) my proposal.
- I turned in (went to bed) early last night.
- We saw a hut and turned in (entered in passing) for shelter there.
- Turn off the switch.
- Turn on the switch.
- The case turns on (depends on) his report.
- The boy was turned out (thrown out) for misconduct.
- Your report turned out (proved) to be true.
- The people turned out (assembled) in large numbers to see the sight.
- The mill turns out (produces) 800 pairs of cloth every day.
- He did not turn up in time (appear)
Phrasal verbs With Work
- Please try to work in (introduce) a few more illustrations on the subject.
- You must work off (dispose of) the accumulated work.
- Unless you work off (get rid of) your excess fat, you will fall ill.
- He is working on a new scheme.
- They worked on (continued to work) till sunset.
- Work out (solve) this sum.
- I have worked out (calculate) your share at Rs. 150.00.
- The engineers have worked out a method by which construction costs would be reduced.
Here we are providing the most common and most important Phrasal verbs for SSC CGL, SSC CHSL in pdf format.
You can also download the list of the phrasal verbs with meaning and pdf by using the PDF option at the bottom of the article.