India elected as non-permanent member of UNSC: India has been elected as non-permanent member of UNSC (United Nation Security Council) for a two-year term.
Know about United Nations Security Council
- UNSC was established by the United Nations charter in 1945.
- The primary responsibility of the Security Council is maintaining international peace and security.
- The United Nations Charter established six organs under United Nations, one of which is Security Council.
The six organs of the UN are
The General Assembly,
The Security Council,
The Economic and Social Council,
The Trusteeship Council,
The International Court of Justice,
The UN Secretariat.
Structure of United Nations Security Council
The Security Council is composed of fifteen member states which consists
- Five permanent members are China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States.
- Ten non-permanent members are elected for two-year terms.Election is conducted by the General Assembly from a regional category. These regional categories are listed here
Five for African and Asian countries;
One for Eastern European countries;
Two for Latin American and Caribbean countries;
Two for Western European and other countries.
- A country needs the vote of two-thirds of the 193 UN General Assembly members to win a non-permanent seat on the UNSC.
- Article 23 of the UN Charter deals with the composition of the Security Council.
What is veto power?
“Veto power” refers to the power of the permanent member to veto or reject any resolution of Security Council.
Criticism against the veto power
- The veto power is unconditional.
- The veto power is regarded as an undemocratic character of the UN.
- Sometimes veto power is considered as the main cause for international dormancy on war crimes and crimes against humanity.
Facts to know as India elected as non-permanent member of UNSC
- India was the only candidate for a non-permanent seat from the Asia-Pacific region for the 2021-22 term.
- India was favoured by 184 countries out of 193 countries and the selection was unopposed. Rest 9 countries did not show up during voting.
- India’s term will begin on 1st January 2021.Apart from India, Norway, Kenya, Ireland, and Mexico were also elected for a period of 2 years as non-permanent member state.
- 2021-22 term will be India’s 8th term. Analysis of previous years vote sharing is shown in the diagram below.
Global Impact of India’s Election as a Non-Permanent Member in the UNSC
- If India becomes a permanent member of UNSC, there will be series of intense global impacts like
- Pakistan’s nuclear program will come under scrutiny.
- Jammu and Kashmir issue will be further triggered in favour of India.
- Global power distribution will be in more equilibrium state.
- India will put an ever-expanding global footprint in diverse areas like politics, sustainable development, culture and science and technology.
India’s responsibility as a non-permanent member of UNSC
- Dr. Subrahmanyam Jaishankar, the External Affairs Minister of India has termed India’s upcoming objective as ‘NORMS’ which stands for New Orientation for a Reformed Multilateral System.
- India will initially focus on multilateral forums of regional organisation like SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).
- India will take part in UNSC’s agenda to promote global peace, security, resilience and equity. India’s participation to combat global terrorism will be India’s priority.
- Being a member of the critical juncture in UNSC , India has the responsibility towards post-COVID19 world. India will register it’s key participation in global health, global socio-economic issues.
- India will push for further push for the expansion of the UNSC permanent membership.
India’s demand for permanent membership
- India never demanded for the permanent membership until 1993.
- In 1993 India submitted its written proposal to the UN as response to the General Assembly resolution related to reforms. But India did not demand for the permanent place even in the proposal.
- India has started asking for a permanent membership in the council for last few years.
Does India deserve a place in the security council?
Yes, India deserves a permanent place in the security council because of these reasons
- The size of India’s economy and population.
- India is the largest democracy in the world.
- India is one of the founding members of United Nations in 1945.
- India is a Nuclear Weapon State (NWS)
- India has become a major regional player not only in the South Asian region but also in the world.
- India has enormous impact of its soft power around the world.
- GDP, economic potential, civilization legacy, cultural diversity etc make India qualified for permanent membership.
Stonewalls in India’s inclusion as permanent member
- India has refused to sign the CTBT and NPT.
- India’s inclusion as permanent member is is already backed by four permanent members (USA,Russia,UK,France) in UNSC. However, China has downplayed by using veto power.
- Poor performance in Human Development Index.
- Over reliance on USA and Russia for weapon import.
- Strong competition with Japan, Brazil and Germany as new permanent member of UNSC.
- China is blocking India’s entrance by using veto power all the time India formally demands for the permanent membership.
Why is China blocking India?
- India is the largest democracy in the world,whereas China shows a dictatorship under Xi Jinping. Literally a democratic country like India is way more credible and legitimate. World would rather listen to a democratic country than a dictator one.
- China thinks that if India’s influence gets higher it can take away the low-cost labour market.
- Companies would rather love to invest in democratic countries.
- India is not only a regional player but also an emerging super power,thus enjoys enormous soft power.
- India’s emergence could be a threat to China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
- If India becomes a permanent member India can even influence Jammu and Kashmir issue with more resolute and stringent steps thus it could be a peril of billions of investment in Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
- With India’s emergence, India could further become a vital player in South China Sea.
- China’s debt trap strategy in South Asian region with the countries like Srilanka, Bangladesh,Nepal will definitely face a hit if India gets the permanent member in UNSC.
How can India become a permanent member of UNSC?
The G4 group i.e. India,Germany,Japan and Brazil have exerted a push for UNSC reforms on expansions, legitimacy and representatives. Along with major support of member states out of 193, the UNSC reforms is possible which eventually might help in India’s entry.
What will be the benefits for India?
- India can enjoy a veto power that is an enormous power.
- India will be able to justify its demand to put Pakistan into FATF’s black list.
- India will be able to take a stringent and resolute step against Pakistan based terror outfits and launchpads.
- India will be able to work better for its regional interests.
- India will expand its geo-political and geo-economic reach.
- India will be able to counter China in Indo-pacific region.
- In a nut shell India’s inclusion as a permanent member will be an acknowledgment of its rise as a global power, ready to play a key role in the global governance and security council’s objectives of international peace and security.
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