Know All About Ramsar Convention, Ramsar Sites in India

Ramsar Sites In India is a very important topic for competitive examination perspective.  Know All About Wetlands, Ramsar Convention and why are they so important from environmental aspects ? Let’s learn Ramsar sites in India UPSC in details.

What is a Wetland?


Wetland is a generic term that defines a place where plant and animal life are associated with a active water table either permanently or seasonally. The water table is the primary and controlling factor in wetland environment.

Definition of Wetland According to Ramsar Convention

Wetlands are areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six metres.

Most Widespread Definition of Wetland

Lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water.

Types of Wetlands


Natural Wetlands

  • Coastland and Inland
  • Swamp and Marshes
  • Floodplains
  • Mangrove
  • Delta

Artificial Wetlands

  • Aquaculture/Mariculture
  • Agriculture
  • Salt exploitation
  • Urban/Industrial
  • Water storage areas
Significance of Wetlands

Wetland Is a Co-habitation of Fish, Wildlife, and Plants


Fish and wildlife use wetland habitat for different parts of their life cycle for feeding, survival and reproduction. Wetlands provide the primary habitat for many species, and for others wetland remains the important seasonal habitat. Wetlands is a cohabitation environment for all species specially for feeding, shelter and reproduction. Rich biodiversity is observed in wetlands.

  • Wetlands provide food and shelter for mammals like swamp rat,rodents,platypus,fishing bat etc.
  • Reptiles like freshwater turtles, water skinks, snakes are found in wetlands.
  • Birds like ducks, geese and swans,grebes,pelicans,herons crakes, waterhens find a perfect habitat in wetlands.
  • Two-thirds of the all the frog species are found in wetlands.
  • Different species of fishes use coastal or inland wetlands for their breeding,feeding and shelter.

Wetland Is a Source of Substantial Biodiversity


Wetlands are the most productive ecosystems in the world like rain forests and coral reefs. They also are the source of substantial biodiversity in supporting rich food web numerous species from microscopic algae and submerged vascular plants to mammals.

Wetland Is a Source of Substantial Biodiversity
Wetland Is a Source of Substantial Biodiversity

Wetlands can be termed as ‘biological supermarkets.’ as wetlands produce varieties of food that attract many animal species.The combination of moisture, rich levels of inorganic nutrients and high rates of synthesis of new plant biomass through photosynthesis in wetlands is the ideal environment for the development of organisms that form the base of the food web.

What is Food Web?

The complex and dynamic feeding relationships among the organisms living in wetland environments are defined as food webs.

Wetlands are Natural Buffers


Wetlands are natural buffers for excruciating weather situations. Wetland can reserve rainwater, late droughts, reduce flooding,protect shoreline erosion, improves natural water quality.

Facts
Wetlands ensure whole world’s 20% nutrition through food supply like fish, rice, wheat, etc.

Wetland Provides a Socioeconomic and Ecological Support


Over 500 million people are directly or indirectly depends on wetlands for livelihood by fishing and adaptive aqua-culture and tourism particularly in the underdeveloped and developing world. Thus wetlands provide a socioeconomic and ecological undertaking.

Carbon Sequestration in Wetlands


Wetlands are the biggest stores of carbon on the earth. It stores green house gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) etc. So the destruction of an existing wetland means  the loss of that particular carbon sink, and the worst part is that the carbon stored in that wetland will be released into the environment.

What is Ramsar Convention on Wetlands?
  • The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is a  global treaty set up by UNESCO and signed in Ramsar on 2nd February, 1971. It came with effect in 1975.
  • Ramsar is a city in Iran and it is situated on the shores of Caspian sea.
  • It is an intergovernmental treaty which was primarily signed by 18 countries.
  • Ramsar convention provides a comprehensive framework for national and international cooperation for the conservation and effective use of wetlands and their resources.
  • At present there are total 171 Contracting Parties to the Convention.
  • India joined the convention on 1st February 1982 in force with Chilika Lake (Ohisha) 
Note: Ramsar Treaty was the first international treaty on the environment.
Facts
Chilika lake in Odisha was the first Indian wetland which received international acceptance under the Ramsar Convention.
International Bodies Involving Ramsar Convention

The Ramsar Convention works with six International organisations. All of them are called International Organization Partners (IOPs)

  • Birdlife International
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
  • International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
  • Wetlands International
  • WWF International
  • Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust (WWT)

Other Partners in Co-operation

  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
  • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals
  • World Heritage Convention (WHC)
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
Objectives of Ramsar Convention
  • The main objective is to seek international attention to point out at the alarming rate at which the wetlands are disappearing.
  • To avoid conflicts at the trans boundary wetlands or at the trans boundary river basin wetlands.
  • To provide a comprehensive framework for national and international cooperation toward mutual benefits.

Ramsar Sites in India: Wetland Sites In India Under Ramsar Convention


There are total 46 Ramsar sites in India as of August 2021. Here is the full list.

  • Jammu and Kashmir – Wular Lake, Hokera Wetland, Surinsar-Mansar Lakes, Tsomoriri
  • Ladakh – Tso Kar
  • Himachal Pradesh – Pong Dam lake, Chandra Taal, Renuka lake
  • Punjab – Harike lake, Kanjli lake, Ropar lake, Nangal WLS, Beas Conservation Reserve, Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve
  • Uttar Pradesh – Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora stretch), Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary, Parvati Agra Bird Sanctuary, Saman Bird Sanctuary, Samaspur Bird Sanctuary, Sandi Bird Sanctuary, Sarsai Nawar Jheel, Sur Sarovar (also known as Keetham lake)
  • Uttarakhand – Asan Conservation Reserve
  • Rajasthan – Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Sambar lake
  • Gujarat – Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary, Thol lake, Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Maharashtra – Nandur Madhameshwar Bird Sanctuary, Lonar Lake
  • Madhya Pradesh – Bhoj wetlands
  • West Bengal – East Calcutta wetland, Sundarbans wetland
  • Bihar – Kabartal Wetland
  • Assam – Deepor Beel
  • Manipur – Loktak lake
  • Tripura – Rudrasagar lake
  • Odisha – Bhitarkanika Mangroves, Chilika lake
  • Andhra Pradesh – Kolleru lake
  • Tamil Nadu – Point Calimere Wildlife & Bird Sanctuary
  • Kerala – Ashtamudi lake, Sasthamkotta lake, Vembanad Kol wetland
  • Haryana– Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary and Sultanpur Natioanl Park
Note: Latest edition of Ramsar Sites in India

The Lonar lake in Maharashtra and Sur Sarovar, or the Keetham lake, in Agra, UP have been recognised as Ramsar sites in November 2020. In December 2020, Tso Kar Wetland Complex in Ladakh has been included in Ramsar sites in India.  In August 2021, four new sites in India have been recognised as Ramsar Sites.

  1. Thol from Gujarat
  2. Wadhwana from Gujarat,
  3. Sultanpur from Haryana and
  4. Bhindawas from Haryana

 Hence, India is the country with the highest number of Ramsar Sites in the South East Asia.

Ramsar Sites in India
Ramsar Sites in India
How Can a Ramsar Site Be Identified?

A nominated wetland is designated as Ramsar site only if satisfy at least one of the nine criteria outlined by the Ramsar Convention.

What is Montreux Record?
  • It is a register where all the present and anticipated changes of ecological character are recorded for all the Ramsar sites. These ecological changes might be due to some technological developments, pollution or human interference.
  • This register helps to prioritize on wetlands that need national or international attention.
  • Ramsar sites may be added or removed from the register only after the approval of the Contracting Parties.
World Wetland Day
  • World Wetland Day is celebrated each year on 2nd February to mark the date 2 February,1971 when Ramsar Convention on Wetlands was adopted.
  • It day was celebrated for the first time on February 2, 1997. It was the 16th anniversary of the Ramsar Convention.
Wetland Conservation in India
  • Government of India came up with Programme a called National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) to protect and stop further degradation of listed wetlands in India.
  • It comes under Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change.
  • National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) was launched in 1985-86

Here are some environmental laws for wetland protection in India

  • Indian Fisheries Act, 1857
  • Indian Forest Act, 1927
  • Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
  • Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
  • Marine Zones Act, 1976
  • Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 1991
Wetland Database In India

National Wetland Atlas is the database which compiles the updated record and status of wetlands in India. There are total 2,01,503 wetlands in India have been mapped at National Wetland Atlas.

Wetlands provide many recreational, educational, and research opportunities that will help us to explore more about the habitations of many organisms associated with it. Wetlands not only provide many societal benefits in form of food and habitat for fish,wildlife and humans but also protects threatened and endangered species thus helps to maintain an ecological balance. But now-a-days wetland and their habitats are being threatened by many factors like pollution,human intrusion,transportation and service corridors,, climate change and severe weather and geological events, weed infestation, dam construction, land filling,, sewage dumps etc. There should be stringent laws with proper implementation to follow the guidelines under Ramsar convention, which will be in line with Environment Impact Assessment also.

  Also Read

The article Ramsar sites in India UPSC will be useful for the students, who are preparing for competitive examinations like UPSC and other State PSCs. We have also made most important MCQ on Ramsar sites in India UPSC. It will help you sharpen your preparation on Ramsar sites in India UPSC.

Most Important MCQ on Ramsar sites in India UPSC

1. Which one is the largest Ramsar Site of India?

a. Pong Dam lake

b. Chilika Lake

c. Loktak lake

c. Kolleru lake

Ans: Chilika Lake is the largest Ramsar Site in India. It has a surface area of 1,16,500 hectares.

2.Which state has the maximum numbers of Ramsar Site of India?

a. Maharashtra

b. Uttar Pradesh

c. Kerala

d. West Bengal

Ans: Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of Ramsar Sites in India with 8 Wetland

3. Which one is the smallest Ramsar Site of India?

a. Asan Conservation Reserve in Uttarakhand

b. Ropar lake in Punjab

c. Renuka Wetland in Himachal Pradesh

c. Rudrasagar lake in Tripura

Ans: Renuka Wetland in Himachal Pradesh is the smallest wetland in India. It has a surface area of 20 hectares.

4. International Wetlands Day is celebrated on which date?

a. 2nd February

b. 2nd May

c. 2nd January

d. 2nd April

5. On which date India joined the Ramsar convention?

a. 1st February 1982

b. 1st February 1983

c. 1st February 1984

c. 1st February 1985

Ans: India joined the convention on 1st February 1982 in force with Chilika Lake (Ohisha). Chilika Lake is the first ramsar site in India.

6. The Ramsar Convention was signed on which date?

a. 2nd February, 1971

b. 2nd February, 1972

c. 2nd February, 1974

d. 2nd February, 1975

Ans: The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands is a global treaty set up by UNESCO and signed in Ramsar on 2nd February, 1971. It came with effect in 1975.

7. Ramsar is a city in which country?

a. Turkey

b. Oman

c. Iran

d. Turkmenistan

8. Ramsar convention on wetlands is a treaty which was set up by which international organization?

a. UNFCC

b. UNFPA

c. World Wildlife Fund

d. UNESCO

9. Which one is the first Ramsar Site in the world?

a. Bolinas Lagoon in USA

b. Cobourg Peninsula, Australia

c. Bolivia’s Llanos de Moxos wetlands

d. Chilka Lake in India

Ans: In 1974,Cobourg Peninsula, Australia has been identified as the world’s first Ramsar site.

10. Which country has the maximum number of Ramsar Sites?

a. USA

b. Bolivia

c. UK

d. Mexico

Ans: The countries with the most Sites are the United Kingdom, it has 175 Ramsar sites and Mexico with 142. Bolivia has the largest area with 148,000 square km under the Convention protection.

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